Phytocoenologia - Instructions to Authors

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Phytocoenologia is an international, peer-reviewed journal of plant community ecology. It is devoted to vegetation survey and classification at any organizational and spatial scale and without restriction to certain methodological approaches. The journal publishes original papers that develop new vegetation typologies as well as applied studies that use such typologies, for example, in vegetation mapping, ecosystem modelling, nature conservation, land use management or monitoring. Particularly encouraged are methodological studies that design and compare tools for vegetation classification and mapping, such as algorithms, databases and nomenclatural principles. Papers dealing with conceptual and theoretical bases of vegetation survey and classification are also welcome. While large-scale studies are preferred, regional studies will be considered when filling important knowledge gaps or presenting new methods.

Manuscripts outside this scope or with poor linguistic quality will be declined without review. If you are in doubt about the suitability of your paper, you can discuss this with one of the Chief Editors prior to submission.


Manuscripts can only be submitted via the journal's Manuscript Management System:

First-time users, please register as an author. Immediately after registration you are ready to start the five-step submission process. If you need any assistance please contact the publisher ( The corresponding author will be notified by e-mail; if a submission notification does not reach you within 24 hours, please also check your system’s spam filter.

Format of submission

For the review process, please submit the full manuscript as a single editable text file (MS Word or rtf). The text should have 1.5-fold line spacing, numbered pages and continuously numbered lines. Figures and tables should be included together with their captions on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. Items that are intended for publication as Electronic Supplements should each be provided in a separate file in the final format for publication (i.e. text should be single-line spaced, no line numbering). Each file should be clearly named, and all of them together be uploaded as a single compressed file (such as zip, rar etc.; further details, see below). Examples of suitable file names are:


By submitting a manuscript to Phytocoenologia, the authors implicitly guarantee that it represents original unpublished work, not being currently considered for publication elsewhere. After acceptance for publication, the authors transfer the copyright of their article to the publisher. The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, microfilms or any other reproductions, translations and electronic versions.


In agreement with the standards of various research organisations, listing a person as co-author is only admissible when this person (a) made a substantial scientific contribution to the sampling, the analyses and/or the writing-up and (b) read and approved the final version of text before submission. For papers with more than one author, the individual contributions have to be stated in an author contribution statement to be published in the article (see below).

Any other contribution (financial support, supervision, technical assistance, linguistic editing, etc.) to an article does not justify authorship and should be mentioned in the Acknowledgements instead. When vegetation-plot or other data are retrieved from public or private databases, their custodians may be listed as co-authors only if they also contributed substantially to the analyses and/or the writing of the paper. For proper ways to credit custodians of such databases, see section “Plot data” below.

Peer review

All submitted manuscripts are subject to peer review to evaluate their scientific soundness and their suitability for the journal’s audience. Special review procedures apply to Editorials and certain types of Reports. Authors will normally be notified of acceptance, rejection, or need for revision within three months.

If authors are invited for revision they will be given an amount of time corresponding to the extent of required changes. When resubmitting a revised version of a previously evaluated manuscript, you are expected to accompany it with a response letter that details how you dealt with the suggestions of reviewers and Co-ordinating Editor.

Types of contributions

During submission, you have to select whether your paper is a Regular Article, belongs to the Section Ecoinformatics, the Section Phytosociological Nomenclature or a certain Special Issue. Further, you should indicate both in your cover letter and on the title page of your manuscript the article type to which your manuscript belongs:
Research Paper
Any contribution that does not fall into one of the following categories.
Review and Synthesis
This category is for papers that do not (or hardly) contain new data/analyses, but critically review the existing knowledge on a topic to derive new ideas or conclusions, which are not mere summaries of the literature. Papers of this category can, for example, provide a concise overview of the vegetation of a whole country or another larger area or review a certain methodological aspect relevant to vegetation classification.
Forum Paper
Forum papers are essays with original ideas / speculations / well-sustained arguments, but without new data. They usually contribute to free debate of current and often controversial ideas in vegetation classification. There may be criticism of papers published in Phytocoenologia, or (if interesting to our readers) of papers published elsewhere. An Abstract is required, but otherwise the sectional format is flexible. The length of Forum papers is normally 2–4 printed pages.
This category includes items that are not scientific papers, e.g. news items, reports on the existence of databases and technical information. A report can describe a new or much expanded computer program if this is of interest for vegetation classification. Reports are typically 1–2 pages with a maximum of 10 (15) references; additional material should be put in Electronic Appendices.
Only Chief Editors or persons solicited by these can submit Editorials.

Section Ecoinformatics (Section Editors Florian Jansen & Jürgen Dengler)

Papers presenting vegetation-plot databases and other ecoinformatics data sources relevant for vegetation classification as well as concepts and methods for using these should be submitted to this section. They should be classified into one of the above categories (Research Paper, Review and Synthesis, Forum Paper, Report).

Phytocoenologia has established a formal collaboration with the Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases (GIVD; It serves as outlet for Reports on GIVD activities, Short Database Reports (1 printed page, no text except abstract, no references) and Long Database Reports (3–8 printed pages, up to 25 references). Both types of Database Reports comprise as core element the standardised GIVD Fact Sheet. Database Reports in general are only possible for vegetation-plot databases registered in GIVD. Specifically, Long Database Reports are offered to European databases with at least 5,000 plot observations or extra-European ones with at least 2,000 plot observations, while the thresholds for Short Database Reports are 500 and 200 plot observations, respectively. Moreover, Database Reports will only be accepted from databases that have not yet published such a GIVD-edited report or which have, after a previous Short Database Report, at least doubled their content. Submissions of Database Reports must be accompanied by a recent GIVD Fact Sheet, which can be obtained from GIVD. The title of a Short Database Report consists of the name of the database (as registered in GIVD; capitalise all words because it is a proper name), possibly followed by a subtitle or explanation after an en-dash. For Long Database Reports, the title also must contain the unchanged proper name of the database, but otherwise its arrangement is more flexible. Further format specifications and instructions for submission are available from the Section Editors or from GIVD.

Section Phytosociological Nomenclature (Section Editors Wolfgang Willner & Erwin Bergmeier)

Papers focusing on phytosociological nomenclature should be submitted to this section. They should be classified into one of the above categories (Research Paper, Review and Synthesis, Forum Paper, Report). We encourage comprehensive nomenclatural revisions of major syntaxa, analyses of nomenclatural problems related with the names of wide-spread high-rank syntaxa as well as Forum papers on general nomenclatural issues that are of interest to an international readership. We discourage papers dealing with names of communities of only regional distribution. The publication of new syntaxa is not permitted in this section except in cases of validations or changes of rank of existing syntaxon names, where all relevant classification information (including tables) has been published before.

Further, this section invites reports and official documents issued by the Working Group for Phytosociological Nomenclature of the International Association for Vegetation Science (IAVS). In particular, the section serves as the publication outlet for the Working Group’s Committee for the Conservation and Change of Names and thus publishes all proposals for nomina ambigua or nomina conservanda formally submitted to this Committee as well as the recommendations of the Committee how to handle them. The proposals should be submitted in the article category Nomenclatural Proposal (1–2 printed pages, no abstract, no keywords, no subdivision of text into sections, at maximum 15 references). Such contributions can be slightly longer if they combine several related proposals in one manuscript. Editing of Nomenclatural Proposals will be restricted to formal issues to ensure that they contain all information relevant for evaluation of the case by the Committee to which they are automatically transferred when accepted for publication. Titles of Nomenclatural Proposals should have the following format (unlike all other article types here authorities are allowed and required in the title):

Proposal (#number to be added by editor#): to conserve the name Aceretalia pseudoplatani Moor 1976 against Tilietalia Moor 1973

Special Issues

Phytocoenologia will, from time to time, publish Special Issues on certain topics. Submission to a Special Issue is possible only for manuscripts that have been invited by the Special Issue Editors (usually following an evaluation of proposed abstracts). If you are interested in organising a Special Issue, please contact one of the Chief Editors to discuss this option.

Guidleines for vegetation classification papers (outside and inside Special Issues)

Methodological approach
Vegetation classification studies should clearly delimit the target vegetation type, describe the methods of data sampling, or data selection from databases, and formally describe each step of the classification process, in order to make the process of sampling (or data compilation) and classification repeatable by other researchers. If classification is based on or includes expert judgement, unequivocal a posteriori criteria for assignment of vegetation samples to community types must be given.
Data presentation
Plant community types described in vegetation classification papers should be documented by comparative tables with species abundance or frequency data (in the body of the table) and relevant environmental variables (in the header of the table). Tables with species constancy (frequency) should contain percentages (not classes). Species in these tables should be sorted and grouped to indicate the floristic differentiation of community types. Group headings may be used. Differentiation criteria and thresholds used for structuring the tables and defining diagnostic (character, differential or indicator) species should be formally described and strictly followed. While space in the printed journal usually only allows for presentation of synoptic tables with constancy columns, the authors are strongly encouraged to present the underlying unabridged sorted relevé tables in Electronic Supplements in usable form. If in doubt please ask the Editor.
Community descriptions
While textual description of community types should be as concise as possible and should not repeat information contained in the tables, Phytocoenologia appreciates descriptive and structured accounts of plant community types with notes, if applicable, on vegetation structure, habitat, phenology and prevailing colours, impacts and variation. Formerly described community types should be briefly annotated with an explicit reference to the source, where full description is provided. Vegetation classification papers may also contain photographs of representative stands for particular community types dealt with, arranged as plates with multiple panels, typically one panel for each community type. One journal page with photographs of vegetation types can be included in the printed version (colour print is to be paid by the authors); more photographs can be included free of charge in Electronic Supplements.
Nomenclature of community types
Nomenclature of community types should be internally consistent, typically following regional tradition. If the formal nomenclature of the Braun-Blanquet approach is used, the rules of the latest edition of International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature must be adhered to. If new syntaxa are published according to the Code, nomenclatural types must be included in the printed text.
Plot data
The authors are strongly encouraged to publish primary data related to the paper (e.g. vegetation-plot data) in Electronic Supplements, preferably in a standard vegetation database format (Veg-X, Turboveg XML), or to store them in a major national or regional vegetation database. This should be indicated in the Methods section by referring to the database (through citing a database paper and/or through the database’s ID in the Global Index of Vegetation-Plot Databases; and the plot numbers within this database. Disclosing the sources of plot data in detail is obligatory when data have been retrieved from databases owned by third parties; in this case all databases from which data have been used, have to be referred to with their GIVD ID (if any) or by citing a paper describing that database.


Manuscripts must be written in English language (either British or American throughout). Authors not using their mother tongue are strongly advised to have the text revised by a native speaker before submission.

Manuscript structure

The manuscript should be organised as a single continuous document, with a title page, followed by the body of text and the figures and tables on separate pages at the end. Always consult a recent issue of Phytocoenologia or the journal’s website at for details on format, sequence of headings, citation style and arrangement of the manuscript.

Title page

Type: Indicate to which section and type of article your manuscript should be assigned.

Title: This should be strongly directed towards attracting the interest of potential readers. The shorter a title, the more citations an article usually attracts.

Author names: In the current format of the journal. e.g.:
C. Nicole Flowers, Annette Wiese & Pablo F. Verde

Author addresses: Affiliations, addresses and e-mails for all authors, e.g.:

Flowers, C.N. (Corresponding author,,2, Wiese, A. (, Verde, P.F. (
1Botany Department, Little Marsh University, 11 Main St., Little Marsh, Berkshire, United Kingdom
2Community Ecology, Research Institute, Avenida verde 111, Porto Allegre, RS 915140-000, Brazil

Running head: Shortened title (up to 75 characters including spaces) to be used in the header of the printed article.

Body of text

Abstract: Up to 300 words (200 for Reports and Forum articles, 150 for Database Reports), no references. The abstract should concisely and concretely summarize the main facts on “Question(s)”, “Study area”, “Methods”, “Results” and “Conclusions”, structured by these subheadings. Subheadings can be adjusted where appropriate (e.g. “Aims” instead of “Questions”). They are optional for Reports and Forum articles and not used for Database Reports.

Keywords: There should be 6–12 singular keywords not repeating title words, in alphabetical order and separated by semicolons, e.g.:
Abies; Alpine; biodiversity; functional diversity; gradient analysis; trait; transect

Nomenclature: Refer to one (or few) source(s) for unified nomenclature of plant species or vegetation units, unless there be few names and their authors are given in the text, e.g.:

Miller (2001) for vascular plants, except Myers et al. (2003) for Asteraceae

Abbreviations: List and explain any abbreviations that are frequently used in the text, e.g.:

DCA = Detrended Correspondence Analysis; ICPN = International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (Weber et al. 2000)

Main text: Up to three levels of unnumbered section headings are possible. Standard sequence of main sections in Phytocoenologia is Introduction – Study area – Methods – Results – Discussion, but variation of this structure is acceptable where appropriate.

Author contribution: Required for any paper with more than one author, e.g.:
A.B. planned the research, C.T.F. and Z.K. conducted the field sampling, B.C. performed the statistical analyses and led the writing, while all authors critically revised the manuscript.

Acknowledgements: Keep them brief. References to research projects/funds and institutional publication numbers can go here as well as credits to individuals who helped but did not make a significant scientific contribution that would warrant authorship.

References: For details, see below.

Appendices: Appendices are exceptionally possible for items other than vegetation tables that would disturb the flow of reading but are necessary to appear in print. A typical case is the presentation of nomenclatural types of syntaxa described as new.

Electronic Supplements: If applicable, reference to Electronic Appendices with short (one-line) captions. The reference should have the following format:

Supplementary material associated with this article is embedded in the article´s pdf. The online version of Phytocoenologia is hosted at and the journal’s website The publisher does not bear any liability for the lack of usability or correctness of supplementary material.

Supplement S1: Ordered relevé table of the Fagion sylvaticae.
Supplement S2: Ordered relevé table of the Tilion cordatae.
Supplement S3: Photo guide to the associations described in this article.

Tables and figures:

Each table and figure should be supplied on a separate page, accompanied by its caption.


Headings, subheadings, and exceptionally third-level headings should be written in regular font (not in capital letters), and their hierarchy must be clearly indicated. Avoid footnotes.

Units of measurement must follow the International System of Units (SI), e.g. mg m-2 yr-1. The time units for contemporary phenomena can be s, min, hr, week, mo or yr. For palaeo-time use ka or Ma; make always clear whether 14C years or calendar years BP (before present) are used. Dates should be in the format: 2 Sep 2010, i.e. with the month as three letters. Months on their own should be in full: September. Country abbreviations are by 2-letter ISO code (but UK, not GB). Use words rather than symbols where possible, especially in the Title, Abstract and Keywords, e.g. 'beta' rather than 'β'. One-letter mathematical symbols (p, R2, z) are given in italics as are any non-English expressions in the English text (e.g. ad hoc, a posteriori).

Numbers with units of measurement must be in digits, e.g. 3.5 g. Numbers in the text of up to ten items (i.e. integers) should be in words, e.g. "ten quadrats", "five sampling times"; above ten in digits, e.g. "11 sampling times". Use '.' (dot) for a decimal separator. Thousands in large numbers (ten thousand and higher) should be indicated by a comma, e.g. 10,000, but 2000.

Scientific names of taxa of any rank are to be given in italics (Carex curvula subsp. curvula, Asteraceae) and without authorities (the nomenclatural reference(s) should be indicated in the section “Nomenclature” below the Abstract). Formal syntaxon names of the Braun-Blanquet approach are also to be given in italics (Caricetum curvulae, Querco-Fagetea). Here the authorities and the year of publication should be presented at first mentioning (but not in thetitle or headings) or in a syntaxonomic overview unless one nomenclatural reference is used and followed throughout the manuscript.

Herbarium: If applicable, indicate where specimens collected in the course of data sampling have been stored; use Index Herbariorum codes (Thiers, B. [continuously updated]. Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff. New York Botanical Garden's Virtual Herbarium.

For geographical names always use internationally recognized names. In questionable cases, refer to the Times Atlas of the World or Merriam-Webster's Geographic Dictionary to make sure that a name you intend to use is listed in their indexes, and its spelling is correct. Use of geographic coordinates (preferably decimal degrees, WGS-84) is strongly recommended.

Citations in the text

Use forms such as: Smith & Jones (2005) or (Smith & Jones 2005); for more than two authors: White et al. (2005); for combinations: (Smith et al. 2005a, 2005b; Jones 2006, 2010). Citations must be chronological by year, except where there is a list of years for the same author(s), e.g. (Zebedee 1950, 1970; Abraham 1960; Smith et al. 1965, 1974; Zebedee et al. 1969). Reference to articles and books should be limited to published work or work in press. Indicate all other material as "unpubl." or "pers. comm." (the latter with date and description of the type of knowledge, e.g. "local farmer"), or web-address (e.g.; accessed 20 November 2013).

References to computer programs: Computer programs used should be mentioned in the Methods section, e.g. "performed by DoStats (version 6.2, StatProgs Inc., Springfield, NY, US)" or “performed by Partition (version 3.0,”. Only descriptions of computer programs in refereed journals or in books with an ISBN can be cited in the References section. References to computer programs should never substitute references to proper description of methods performed using these programs. The methods used should be fully described in the text, in an appendix and/or by readily-available references. A reference to a computer program and to “program defaults” is not a substitute.

References section

The References section can contain only material that is published (including “early online”/”PrePub” publications with a DOI) or is a thesis. For books that have been published as numbered volumes within a series, this fact can be indicated in square brackets after the book title (but without series editors); for technical reports issued by institutions, this fact can be indicated in square brackets after the publishing institution. For details, see examples below.

Computer programs and databases used should preferably be cited via a publication describing them, but can be included in the References if this is not possible. Please cite pure online sources that are non-permanent (i.e. without DOI) only exceptionally, when there is no printed source that provides equivalent information. When citing non-permanent online sources, indication of the access date is obligatory. For details, see examples below.

The list is ordered alphabetically, with several works by the same author(s) (including all works of “Author et al.”, irrespective whether the co-authors are the same) being arranged in chronological order. For references with up to eleven authors, all authors are listed. If there are twelve or more authors, only the first nine) and the last one are listed, while the others are replaced by "(...) &". Use the formats given below for the different reference types:

Weber, H.E., Moravec, J., & Theurillat, J.-P. 2000. International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature. 3rd edition. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 739–768.
López-Sáez, J.A., Alba-Sánchez, F., Sánchez-Mata, D., Abel-Schaad, D., Gavilán, R.G. & Pérez-Díaz, S. in press. A palynological approach to the study of Quercus pyrenaica forest communities in the Spanish Central System. Phytocoenologia. DOI: 10.1127/0340-269X/2014/0044-0572.

Blackburn, T.M., Essl, F., Evans, T., Hulme, P.E., Jeschke, J.M., Kühn, I., Kumschick, S., Marková, Z., Mrugała, A., (…) & Bacher, S. 2014. A unified classification of alien species based on the magnitude of their environmental impacts. PLoS Biology 12: e1001850.

Ellenberg, H. & Leuschner, C. 2010. Vegetation Mitteleuropas mit den Alpen in ökologischer, dynamischer und historischer Sicht. 6th ed. Ulmer, Stuttgart, DE.

Whittaker, R.H. 1969. Evolution of diversity in plant communities. In: Woodwell, G.M. & Smith, H.N. (eds.) Stability and diversity in ecological systems, pp. 178–196. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven, NY, US.

Whittaker, R.H. 1973. Approaches to classifying vegetation. In: Whittaker, R.H. (ed.) Ordination and classification of communities [Handbook of vegetation science 5], pp. 323–354. Junk, The Hague, NL.

Rodwell, J.S., Schaminée, J.H.J., Mucina, L., Pignatti, S., Dring, J. & Moss, D. 2002. The diversity of European vegetation – An overview of phytosociological alliances and their relationships to EUNIS habitats. National Reference Centre for Agriculture, Nature and Fisheries [Report no. EC-LNV 2002(054)], Wageningen, NL.

Wallin, G. 1973. Lövskogsvegetation i Sjuhäradsbygden [Deciduous woodlands in Sjuhäradsbygden]. Ph.D. thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SE.

Euro+Med 2015. The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. URL: [accessed 7 December 2015].

Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F.G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P.R., O’Hara, R.B., Simpson, G.L., Solymos, P., Stevens, M.H.H. & Wagner, H. 2015. vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2.3-2. URL: [accessed 7 December 2015].

References in other languages than English

  1. References in languages that use the Latin alphabet are cited in the original language. For languages other than French, German or Spanish, titles of papers, book chapters or books should be followed by an English translation in square brackets. Titles of the journals or books in the citations of book chapters are not translated. Example:
    Mucina, L. 1985. Používať či nepoužívať Ellenbergove indikačné hodnoty? [To use or not to use Ellenberg's indicator values?]. Biológia 40: 511–516.
  2. References in Cyrillic and Greek alphabets are cited in the original language but transliterated to Latin alphabet (see principles of transliteration from the various languages using Cyrillic letters). Titles of papers, book chapters or books should be followed by an English translation in square brackets. Titles of the journals or books in the citations of book chapters are not translated. At the end of the citation, the original language is indicated in square brackets. Example:
    Kholod, S.S. 2007. Klassifikatsiya rastitel´nosti ostrova Vrangelya [Classification of Wrangel Island vegetation]. Rastitel'nost' Rossii 11: 3–15. [In Russian.]
  3. References in languages that use other alphabets than Latin, Cyrillic and Greek: Titles of papers/chapters/books including book titles in the citations of chapters and also the titles of the journals are translated to English. At the end of the citation, the original language is indicated in square brackets. Example:
    Chiu, C.-A., Lin, H.-C., Liao, M.-C., Tseng, Y.-H., Ou, C.-H., Lu, K.-C. & Tzeng, H.-Y. 2008. A physiognomic classification scheme of potential vegetation of Taiwan. Quarterly Journal of Forest Research 30: 89–112. [In Chinese.]

Tables, figures, appendices and electronic supplements

Each table, figure, printed appendix and electronic supplement must be mentioned in the text (Fig. x, Table y, Appendix A1, Supplement S1). The elements of each of these categories are numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, following the sequence of their first mentioning in the text. For tables and figures indicate in the text where they should approximately be placed:
#Fig. 4 approximately here#

Numerical results should be presented as either tables or figures, but not both. Table legends should be on the same page as the table to which they refer. The legend should contain sufficient information for the table to be understood without reference to the text of the paper. The first sentence of the legend should comprise a short title for the table. Units should appear in parentheses in the column headings, not in the body of the table. Vertical lines should be avoided. If some part of the table needs to be highlighted (e.g. groups of important species), use background shading (not framing or boldface). All cells with numeric values must be aligned at the decimal separator. For large tables with many empty cells, fill the empty cells with dots to facilitate reading. Tables should be planned in a way that they fit onto the size of the journal pages in readable size; oversized tables should normally go to the Electronic Supplements and only exceptionally can be accepted for print publication.

Figures in the submitted manuscript should be supplied at the size at which they are intended to be printed: either one-column or full-page width. Figure legends should be included within the manuscript text file on the same page as the figure to which they refer. The legend should contain sufficient information for the figure to be understood without reference to the text of the paper. The first sentence of the legend should comprise a short title for the figure. The definitions of symbols and lines should be given as a visual key on the figure itself, not as a word key (e.g. 'solid bars', 'open circle', 'dashed line') in the legend. Sub-graphs within one figure should be headed with a lowercase letter and a brief heading. Wherever space allows, full labels instead of abbreviations should be used in the figures. Scale bars should be given on microphotographs and maps. Use a sans-serif font for figure labels, such as Arial or Helvetica.

Electronic Supplements
Large figures and tables, raw data, calculation examples, computer program source, colour photo plates and similar materials can be published in online 'Supplementary Material‘. This material will not appear in the printed paper, but will be available online.
All PDF files in Electronic Appendices should, so far as is practicable, be prepared in a similar style to the printed/PDF issues of the journal, using similar font types and sizes. Each Electronic Supplement in PDF format should start with a reference to the original paper, followed by the supplement caption, for example:
Supporting Information to the paper Smith, W.R. Assembly rules in a tropical rain forest of central Amazonia. Phytocoenologia.
Supplement S1. A list of palm species recorded in the study area.
Written text should be in PDF, and where the reader might wish to extract text (e.g. computer program codes) also in plain text (TXT). Tables/data should be in both PDF and plain text (TXT or CSV) format, but see above remark for vegetation plot data. Authors are strongly encouraged to make their primary data available in appended tables. Figures and photographs should be in PDF format, including captions. Groups of related items (e.g. a set of figures, or of photographs) should be included in a single appendix. Detailed captions should appear in each appendix. The size of all Supplements combined is currently limited to 4 MB; larger files can only exceptionally be accepted after prior approval by Co-ordinating editor and publisher.

After acceptance

After acceptance of their paper, authors will be asked to upload a compressed file (such as zip, rar etc.) containing the text as editable file (MS Word, rtf etc.), figures as eps- or high resolution tiff-files. Figures (diagrams, graphs and photographs) must be of high quality and suitable for reproduction without modification (resolution: 300 dpi for photographs, 900 dpi for line drawings). Diagrams and graphs should be large enough to permit reduction to the typing area (17.5 cm × 23.5 cm) or to column width (8.5 cm). If ever possible please submit vectorised data for line drawings or other computer-generated files. For maps, please use scale bars to avoid mistakes by reduction.

At that point, the corresponding author will be invited to send to the current Receiving Editor a colour photo or other colour figure related to the article, together with a caption, for consideration as potential cover illustration of the issue in which the article will appear.

Proof correction
After typesetting the corresponding author will receive a pdf for correction. Alterations of the text at that point are generally restricted to corrections of errors introduced during typesetting and to typographical errors. Shortly after the correction and approval of the galley proofs by the authors, the article will be published online ahead of print publication (“PrePub”) at


Printed reprints are only available on demand and against costs when ordered prior to the printing process. Please contact the publishers together with the final corrections. After publication, the corresponding author will receive a pdf of the article for personal use only. Personal use implies: no publication on private or other websites (self-storage, repositories etc.), no distribution in newsgroups or mailing lists etc.

Colour publishing charges
Each page printed in full colour will be charged with €34.90 (plus VAT if applicable), irrespective of the number of colour figures on that page. This fee includes colour in the online version of the article.

Open Access
Optional Open Access is available. The current charge is 140.00 € base fee + 149.00 € per published page (plus VAT if applicable). For articles longer than 18 pages, please contact the publisher. For each issue, the Chief Editors will select one article of particularly wide relevance as Editors’ Choice Open Access. This article will be freely accessible online for a 12-month period following publication. After this period authors may obtain a permanent Open Access license (Creative Commons CC-BY-NC license) at 70% of the regular Open Access charges.

19 February 2016