Biological and genetic diversity in peled (Coregonus peled) populations, introduced beyond south edge of the range, into Tuvinian lakes
Gordeeva, N.V.; Karmanova, O.G.; Shitova, M.V.
Morphology, ecology and genetics were studied in populations of the Russian endemic Coregonid peled (Coregonus peled) introduced into five mountain lakes in the southern Tuva Republic. These populations were compared with aquacultural samples of peled from the Leningrad region; samples that originated from a wild Siberian population from Endyr Lake (Ob’ R. basin) and the donor for all introductions. We found significant variation in the age composition and growth rate among introduced populations. Genetic analysis based on 18 polymorphic nuclear protein-coding loci (allozymes) and ND1 fragment of mtDNA revealed significant differentiation of Tuvinian populations. Statistically significant differences in allele frequencies were observed at some loci; the observed level of genetic differentiation between populations was low (FST = 0. 028) but significant. In the high-mountain Sut-Khol Lake population, genetic diversity was highest at allozymes, but very low at mtDNA markers. This suggests that the level of diversity of each introduced population resulted from the interaction of more or less genetically similar donor material and the specific environment, which created novel selection pressures. Species-specific ND1 haplotypes and gill raker count data indicate the partial hybridization of introduced peled with other Siberian coregonids, Siberian whitefish, C. lavaretus pidschian and least cisco, C. sardinella in Chagytay, Sut-Khol and Kup-Khol lakes.