Original paper

Relationships between blood pressure,polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE),body composition and biochemical characteristics in elderly Slovaks

SiváKová, D.;Lajdová, A.;Basitstova, Z.;Cvícelová,M.;Karabová, P.;Blazicek, P.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that several specific environmental factors and candidate genes influence the human variation in blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate variables associated with blood pressure with a particular emphasis on the differences in insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE),the body composition and the recognized risk factors for atherosclerosis among elderly males and females. A total of 374 participants (174 males and 200 females) aged from 60 to 90 years were recruited from different parts of Slovakia. The elderly were not bed-ridden,nor mentally impaired,they were able to manage their daily activities by themselves.The ACE I/D polymorphism was determined by PCR amplification of the ACE gene sequence. Body composition variables were obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis,using the BIA 101 soft tissue-body impedance analyzer (Akern,S.r.l.). The subjects were determined to be hypertensive (blood pressure 140 / 90 mm Hg) or normotensive (blood pressure 140 / 90 mm Hg). These two subgroups of males and females did not differ significantly in their mean ages. As expected,the hypertensive subjects of both sexes showed significantly higher mean values in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP),in body mass index (BMI),and in the mean values of their plasma glucose and extracellular water (ECW).The genotype distribution and allele frequencies in the whole sample (D = 0.5474,I = 0.4526) fell within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The frequency of the deleterious D allele in the normotensive ( 0.5532 ) and hypertensive (0.5516 ) subjects was not significantly different.The ACE I/D genotypes did not associate either with the systolic (p = 0.836 ) or diastolic BP (p = 0.629). From the other variables that may induce differences in blood pressure,a statistical effect was detected for glucose,Na/K,and Apo A 1 /ApoB ratios and physical activity on SBP,and for ApoA 1,physical activity,BMI and total cholesterol on DBP.

Keywords

HypertensionACE I/D polymorphismadiposity measuresrisk factorselderly Slovaks