Original paper

Osteometric sex determination using proximal foot phalanges from a documented human skeletal collection

Karakostis, F.A.; Zorba, E.; Moraitis, K.

Anthropologischer Anzeiger Volume 71 No. 4 (2014), p. 403 - 427

published: Nov 1, 2014

DOI: 10.1127/0003-5548/2014/0423

BibTeX file

ArtNo. ESP140007104007, Price: 29.00 €

Download preview PDF Buy as PDF


Diagnosing sex is vital for developing biological profiles from human skeletal remains. For that purpose, osteometric evaluation of bone size has proven to be usually effective. The present study investigates the degree of sexual dimorphism in proximal foot phalanges from a documented human skeletal collection, known as the Athens collection. Furthermore, it utilizes the data for the development of sex-discriminant formulas in Greek population. The material used consists of 749 proximal foot phalanges (left and right), which belong to 174 adult individuals (91 males and 83 females) that lived during the 20th century. The degree of sexual dimorphism reached as high as 16.76 %, with the left side demonstrating higher sexual dimorphism. The 1st proximal foot phalanges are proven to be the most sexually dimorphic among the bones of the sample. The minimum sexual dimorphism observed was in the maximum lengths of phalanges, whereas the most sexually dimorphic measurement was the medio-lateral width at midshaft. The discriminant functions developed provide classification accuracies that ranged between 77.1 % and 90.9 % for left and between 72.2 % and 86.6 % for right proximal foot phalanges. The results of this study suggest that proximal foot phalanges are useful for sex determination in Greek population.


athens collectionfoot phalangessex determinationsexual dimorphism