The arcid collection of Carl Emil Lischke in the Zoological Institute, St. Petersburg
Carl Emil Lischke (1813–1886) contributed much to Japanese marine malacology and published the celebrated “Japanische Meeres-Conchylien”, in three volumes (1869–1874). Part of his collection, including samples brought from Japan by the Russian Navy officer N. A. Birilev, is stored in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (ZIN, St. Petersburg). In total, Lischke enumerated ten species of Arcidae from Japan, and we have located seven of Lischke’s original arcid species in the ZIN collection. In modern nomenclature there are six species: Arca avellana Lamarck 1819, Acar plicata (Dillwyn 1817), Barbatia (Savignyarca) virescens (Reeve 1844), Barbatia (Abarbatia) decussata (G. B. Sowerby I 1833), Anadara (Scapharca) kagoshimensis (Tokunaga 1906), and Anadara (Tegillarca) granosa (Linnaeus 1758). Also, among them are syntypes of Arca subcrenata Lischke 1869 (= A. kagoshimensis) illustrated here for the first time. All species are reviewed with regard to their present-day taxonomic position, and illustrated. The history of the C. E. Lischke and N. A. Birilev collections is briefly described.