Original paper

The genus Boucardicus, a Madagascan endemic (Gastropoda: Cyclophoridae: Alycaeinae)

Emberton, Kenneth C .

Abstract

The endemic Madagascan land-snail genus Boucardicus FISCHER-PIETTE & BEDOUCHA 1965 , remarkable for its exquisitely complex shell morphologies and its colors and color patterns , has been greatly overlooked because of small size . Previous studies suggested the potential of Boucardicus as a tool for analyzing Madagascan , island-wide biogeography and conservation ; this paper lays the taxonomic groundwork for such analyses . Based on extensive collections made in 1992 - 1996 ,183 taxa ( 177 species ,6 subspecies) can be recognized: B . acutapex n . sp .; B . aforitrus n . sp .; B . alatus n . sp .; B . albocinctus (SMITH 1893 ) ; B . ambalaniranae n . sp .; B . ambanianae n . sp .; B . ambatolahyi n . sp .; B . ambatovakiae n . sp .; B . amboinus n . sp .; B . ambrensis n . sp .; B . ampanefenae n . sp .; B . analamerae n . sp .; B . andavakoerae n . sp .; B . andohahelae vokelensisn . sp .; B . andringitrae FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . angaFISCHER-PIETTE , F . BLANC & VUKADINOVIC 1974 ; B . anjanaharibei n . sp .; B . antiquus n . sp .; B . beananae FISCHER-PIETTE & BEDOUCHA EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . beampingaratrae 1965 ; B . bedintae n . sp .; B . beloakus n . sp .; B . bemarahae n . sp .; B . bemarahae turbanus n . subsp .; B . betamponae n . sp .; B . betsiakensis n . sp .; B . bevavus n . sp .; B . bidens n . sp .; B . boucheti FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . boulangeri FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . cadlei n . sp .; B . capsaintemariae n . sp .; B . carilockneyae n . sp .; B . carylae EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . castaneus n . sp .; B . celesti n . sp .; B . celestinae n . sp .; B . clarae EMBERTON 1994 ; B . claudei n . sp .; B . coffeus n . sp .; B . compactus n . sp .; B . corrugatus n . sp .; B . costulatus folius distortus dlegans n . sp .; B . culminans FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . curvin . sp .; B . delicatus EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . n . sp .; B . EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . darasyi n . sp .; B . divei FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . dominiqui n . sp .; B . esetrae EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . fauri (FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC &SALVAT 1993 ) ; B . fidimananai EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . fischerpiettei new name for Madecataulus petiti FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . fiorenti n . sp .; B . fofifae n . sp .; B . fortistriatus EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . fotsivavus n . sp .; B . fuscolabrus EMBERTON 1994 ; B . gibberosus (FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ) ; B . globulus n . sp .; B . gloriosus n . sp .; B . goodmani griffithsi n . sp .; B . goudoti(FISCHER-PIETTE & BEDOUCHA 1965 ) ; B . gratus n . sp .; B . n . sp .; B . n . sp .; B . hadgii FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . hafahafushamafasinus n . sp .; B . harananae EMBERTON 1994 ; B . hautspiralus n . sp .; B . hitus n . sp .; B . inconspicuus n . sp .; B . inornatus n . sp .; B . josephinae n . sp .; B . kanto n . sp .; B . kianjavatoae n . sp .; B . kikarivoi n . sp .; B . kremenae n . sp .; B . kristalius n . sp .; B . kylei (EMBERTON 1994 ) ; B . lalitrus n . sp .; B . laoranjus n . sp .; B . lavakelius n . sp .; B . lavalavus n . sp .; B . lavalavus andaitrae n . subsp .; B . lavalavus toilavalavus n . subsp .; B . lavalavus zobikeliae n . subsp .; B . lelus n . sp .; B . leopardus n . sp .; B . littoralis n . sp .; B . lucide EMBERTON 1994 ; B . mageti FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ; B . magnilobatus EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . mahafinaritrus n . sp .; B . mahalevonae n . sp .; B . mahermanae EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999 ; B . malemius n . sp .; B . malotus n . sp .; B . mamirapiratrus n . sp .; B . mananarae n . sp .; B . manantenus n . sp .; B . mandenae n . sp .; B . manjakely n . sp .; B . manomboensis n . sp .; B . manomponae n . sp .; B . marojejiae n . sp .; B . maronifius n . sp .; B . mavokely n . sp .; B . meyersi n . sp .; B . michellae n . sp .; B . microlavalavus n . sp .; B . microtridentatus n . sp .; B . mihomehius n . sp .; B . mijerius n . sp .; B . milloti FISCHER-PIETTE & BEDOUCHA 1965 ; B . minicompactus n . sp .; B . minisimplex n . sp .; B . minutusn . sp .; B . mitovytovylavalavus n . sp .; B . notabilis BLANC & n . sp .; B . moronarous n . sp .; B . nanus n . sp .; B . 1994; B . FISCHER-PIETTE & BEDOUCHA 1965; B . nifimenius 1993; B . n . sp .; B . nifius EMBERTON nosymangabei PIETTE , (SMITH 1892 ) ; B . onjus n . sp .; B . optio FISCHER pachychilus BLANC , SALVAT paradelicatus sp .; n . sp .; B . parantiquus n . n . sp .; B . paratridentatus FISCHER-PIETTE & n . sp .; B . pendulus n . BEDOUCHA 1965; B . B . perineti sp .; B . peliti pseudocompactus B . pupillidentatus n . sp .; B . pseudogastrocoptus n . sp .; B . pseudomphalotropis n . sp .; n . sp .; B . pupisomus EMBERTON 1994; B . rakotoarisoni EMBERTON EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999; B . ranomafanae EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999; B . randalanai 1994; B . regularis n . sp .; B . reservei n . sp .; B . reticulatus n . sp .; B . roamolotrus n . sp .; B . ronae n . sp .; B . ruthae n . sp .; B . sahasoae n . sp .; B . sahavondwnonae n . sp .; B . saintemariae n . sp .; B . saintjacqui n . sp .; B . saintlouisi n . sp .; B . sculptus n . sp .; B . seguini FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993; B . simplex EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999; B . solidus n . sp .; B . soulaianus FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993; B . streptaxis n . sp .; B . striatus n . sp .; B . tandrimus n . sp .; B . timpearcei n . sp .; B . tolagnaroi n . sp .; B . trafous n . sp .; B . triangulus n . sp .; B . tridentatus EMBERTON & PEARCE 1999; B . trompettus n . sp .; B . tsarabeus n . sp .; B . tsaratananae n . sp .; B . tsingyi n . sp .; B . vagneri FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993; B . vagnerigalokoae n . subsp .; B . vagneritsaratae n . subsp .; B . vavabitikus n . sp .; B . victorhernandezi EMBERTON 1998; B . villae (FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ) ; B . vincenti n . sp .; B . volamenus n . sp .; B . volous n . sp .; and B . zebreus n . sp . Eight former species are synonymized: five under Boucardicus albocinctus (B . antsahanori EMBERTON 1994; B . cazieri FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT EMBERTON 1993; B . peani FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993; B . scopulus 1994; B . wiarti Boucardicus FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ) , two under mangabei boucheti (B . jeanneli FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993; B . FISCHER-PIETTE , BLANC , BLANC & SALVAT 1993 ) , and one under Boucardi cus notabilis (B . boucardii FISCHER-PIETTE & BEDOUCHA 1965 ) . A dichotomous key is given for the identification of all recognized taxa . Stan dardized conchological descriptions are given of all recognized and all synonymized taxa and of their major known variants . Many promising regions of Madagascar remain uncollected , with scores of additional species of Boucardicus awaiting discovery . Leaf-litter sampling is essenti al for adequate collecting.