Original paper

Garnet-biotite-clinozoisite gneiss: a new type of diamondiferous metamorphic rock from the Kokchetav Massif

Korsakov, Andrei V.; Shatsky, Vladislav S.; Sobolev, Nikolay V.; Zayachokovsky, Anton A.


Clinozoisite gneisses were studied from the Barchi-Kol area, located 17 km to the west of the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit at Kokchetav massif (Northern Kazakhstan). As distinct from the deposit, the studied rocks are characterized by predominance of diamonds of octahedral habit. Ultrahigh-pressure mineral assemblages were investigated mainly as inclusions in zircons from these rocks. It is established that nucleation and growth of some zircon grains began at the peak of metamorphism (T = 950-1000 °C and P > 40 kbar) and continued while temperature and pressure decreased to T = 650-750 °C and P = 10-12 kbar. Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions for clinozoisite gneisses from the Barchi-Kol area are comparable with those for the Kumdy-Kol microdiamond deposit and correspond to T = 900-1000 °C and P > 40 kbar. High P-T of metamorphism and bulk-rock composition did not affect the morphology of the diamond crystals. The abundance of fluid or melt is proposed to be responsible for the variable extent of the completeness of cuboid reshape reaction, resulting in the formation of octahedral diamond crystals. The preservation of coesite as inclusions within zircon grains, as well as within garnets, suggests the rapid cooling and fast exhumation of the studied rocks. Based on concentration profiles in garnets from diamondiferous clinozoisite rocks, the duration of retrograde metamorphism is estimated to be less than 0.1 Ma.


diamondcoesiteuhpmzoisite-quartz symplectitezircon