Original paper

Recommended nomenclature of epidote-group minerals

Armbruster, Thomas; Bonazzi, Paola; Akasaka, Masahide; Bermanec, Vladimir; Chopin, Christian; Gieré, Reto; Heuss-Assbichler, Soraya; Liebscher, Axel; Menchetti, Silvio; Pan, Yuanming; Pasero, Marco

Abstract

Epidote-group minerals are monoclinic in symmetry and have topology consistent with space group P21/m and the general formula A2M3[T2O7][TO4](O,F)(OH,O). Zoisite is an orthorhombic polymorph of clinozoisite Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH) and is thus not considered a member of the epidote-group. Epidote-group minerals are divided into three subgroups. (1) Members of the clinozoisite subgroup are derived from the mineral clinozoisite Ca2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH) by homovalent substitutions only. The key cation- and anion-sites are A1 = M2+, A2 = M2+, M1 = M3+, M2 = M3+, M3 = M3+, O4 = O2−, O10 = (OH)-. In other words, the dominant valence as listed above must be maintained. (2) Members of the allanite subgroup are REE-rich minerals typified by the eponymous mineral "allanite". This subgroup may be derived from clinozoisite by homovalent substitutions and one coupled heterovalent substitution of the type A2(REE)3+ + M3M2+ → A2Ca2+ + M3M3+. Thus the valences on the key sites are: A1 = M2+, A2 = M3+, M1 = M3+, M2 = M3+, M3 = M2+, O4 = O2−, O10 = (OH)-. (3) Members of the dollaseite subgroup are REE-rich minerals typified by the eponymous mineral "dollaseite". This subgroup may be derived from clinozoisite by homovalent substitutions and two coupled heterovalent substitutions of the type A2(REE)3+ + M3M2+ → A2Ca2+ + M3M3+ and M1M2+ + O4F−→ M1M3+ + O4O-2. Thus the valences on the key sites are: A1 = M2+, A2 = M3+, M1 = M2+, M2 = M3+, M3 = M2+, O4 = F−, O10 = (OH)-.The key cation-sites M3 and A1 (and, in principle, M2) determine the root name. In both clinozoisite and allanite subgroups no prefix is added to the root name if M1 = Al. The prefixes ferri, mangani, chromo, and vanado indicate dominant Fe3+, Mn3+, Cr3+, and V3+ on M1, respectively. In the dollaseite subgroup no prefix is added to the root name if M1 = Mg. Otherwise a proper prefix must be attached; the prefixes ferro and mangano indicate dominant Fe2+ and Mn2+ at M1, respectively. The dominant cation on A2 (other than Ca) is treated according to the Extended Levinson suffix designation. This simple nomenclature requires renaming of the following approved species: Niigataite (old) = clinozoisite-(Sr) (new), hancockite (old) = epidote-(Pb) (new), tweddillite (old) = manganipiemontite-(Sr) (new). Minor modifications are necessary for the following species: Strontiopiemontite (old) = piemontite-(Sr) (new), androsite-(La) (old) = manganiandrosite-(La) (new). Before a mineral name can be assigned, the proper subgroup has to be determined. The determination of a proper subgroup is made by the dominating valence at M3, M1, and A2 expressed as M2+ and or M3+, not by a single, dominant ion (i.e., Fe2+, or Mg, or Al). In addition, the dominant valence on O4: X− or X2− must be ascertained. [M2+]A2 > 0.50, [M3+]M3 > 0.50 → clinozoisite subgroup, [M3+ + M4+]A2 > 0.50, [M2+]M3 > 0.50 → allanite subgroup, {[M2+]M3+M1 - [M3+ + M4+]A2} > 0.50 and [X−]O4 > 0.5 → dollaseite subgroup. Coupled heterovalent substitutions in epidote-group minerals require a special application of the so-called 50 % rule in solid-solution series. (1) Clinozoisite subgroup: The dominant trivalent cation on M3 determines the name, whereas the A2 cation appearing in the suffix has to be selected from among the divalent cations.

Keywords

nomenclatureepidote-group mineralsclinozoisiteallanitedollaseite