Original paper

Ion substitutions and structural adjustment in Cr-bearing tourmalines

Vereshchagin, Oleg S.; Rozhdestvenskaya, Ira V.; Frank-Kamenetskaya, Olga V.; Zolotarev, Anatoly A.


The geological settings of Cr-bearing tourmaline occurrences are reviewed and the crystal chemistry of Cr-bearing tourmalines is analysed on the basis of new X-ray single-crystal structure refinements (R0.019–0.025) of three crystals from the Ural deposits (Cr2O3 content ∼6 wt.%) and one from Umba Valley, Tanzania (∼1 wt.% Cr2O3) and published data (13 structures) on tourmalines from different deposits with Cr content up to 36 oxide wt.%. The boundary between the ordered and the disordered distribution of Cr between Y and Z octahedral sites is determined near 1.03 ± 0.27 Cr apfu and relationships between Cr content and structural parameters (unit-cell parameters, octahedral bond-lengths, charge of Y and Z sites and polyhedral deformation) are established. An increasing Cr content in tourmaline causes an increase of both lattice parameters, of and bond-lengths and a regular variation of the charge of the Y and Z octahedra. In general, the structure becomes less deformed by reducing the distortion of the octahedra and of the tetrahedral ring.


chromiumcrystal chemistrycrystal structuretourmalinex-ray single-crystal refinement