Original paper

Silicocarnotite, Ca5 [(SiO4)(PO4)](PO4), a new ,,old'' mineral from the Negev Desert, Israel, and the ternesite–silicocarnotite solid solution: indicators of high-temperature alteration of pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, Southern Levant

Galuskin, Evgeny V.; Galuskina, Irina O.; Gfeller, Frank; Krüger, Biljana; Kusz, Joachim; Vapnik, Yevgeny; Dulski, Mateusz; Dzierżanowski, Piotr

European Journal of Mineralogy Volume 28 Number 1 (2016), p. 105 - 123

published: Mar 1, 2016

DOI: 10.1127/ejm/2015/0027-2494

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Abstract

The new mineral silicocarnotite, Ca5 [(SiO4 )(PO4)](PO)4 (Pnma; a = 6.72230(1), b = 15.4481(2), c = 10.0847(2) Å V = 1047.37(2) Å 3, Z = 4), has been discovered in pyrometamorphic gehlenite-bearing rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, Negev Deser, Israel. The name ''silicocarnotite'' has been used for the synthetic phase Ca5 [(SiO4)(PO4)](PO)4 for more than 100 years. The holotype specimen is a gehlenite–fluorapatite rock with minor andradite and pseudowollastonite. Silicocarnotite is colourless with a white streak and a vitreous lustre. The microhardness is VHN50 = 523–552 kg m2, mean = 537 kg m2. Mohs hardness is about 5. Cleavage and parting are not observed. The calculated density is 3.06 g cm3. Silicocarnotite is biaxial (+), with α = 1.618(2), β = 1.621(2), γ = 1.628(2) (589 nm), 2V (meas.) = 75(5)o, 2VZ (calc.) = 67o ; dispersion is medium, r > v; the orientation is X || b , Y || a , Z || c; the mineral is nonpleochroic. The empirical formula of holotype silicocarnotite is Ca5.011 Sr0.006 P1.774 Si1.106 S6+ 0.113O12. The strongest diffraction lines are [d hkl , (I)]: 2.815 (100), 2.596 (62), 2.575 (50), 3.285 (48), 3.903 (40), 3.007 (39), 3.176 (36), 1.746 (29), 3.082 (29). Minerals of the silicocarnotite–ternesite solid solution, Ca5[(SiO)4(PO 4)](PO)4–Ca5(SiO4)2SO4, occur in larnite- and gehlenite-bearing pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, distributed in the Dead Sea rift area on the territories of Israel, Palestine and Jordan. New data on morphology, composition, structure, mineral associations, mechanisms and conditions of growth of the ternesite–silicocarnotite solid-solution series are presented. Large ternesite porphyroblasts (metacrysts) in fine-grained larnite–ye'e- limite matrix are the most striking evidence for high-temperature alterations of early ''clinker minerals''. Silicocarnotite–ternesite grains grew as a result of reactions between primary pyrometamorphic minerals (larnite, flamite, fluorellestadite–fluorapatite) with sulphate-bearing melts, which are side-products of the combustion processes during the pyrometamorphism.

Keywords

silicophosphatecalciummetacrystscrystal structurenew mineralcombustion processesramansolid solutionp-bearing ternesitehatrurim complexpyrometamorphismsilicocarnotite