Diversity of Ti–Sn–W–Nb–Ta oxide minerals in the classic granite-related magmatic–hydrothermal Cínovec/Zinnwald Sn–W–Li deposit (Czech Republic)
Breiter, Karel; Korbelová, Zuzana; Chládek, Štěpán; Uher, Pavel; Knesl, Ilja; Rambousek, Petr; Honig, Sven; Šešulka, Vojtěch
European Journal of Mineralogy Volume 29 Number 4 (2017), p. 727 - 738
published: Sep 1, 2017
ArtNo. ESP147052904016, Price: 29.00 €
The diversity of Ti–Sn–W–Nb–Ta oxide minerals within a complex granite-related magmatic–hydrothermal system was studied by electron microprobe on the example of the Cínovec (Zinnwald) granite cupola containing a well-known Sn–W– Li deposit. The Cínovec granite cupola is a late Variscan (ca. 322 Ma), strongly fractionated A-type pluton composed of upper zinnwaldite granite and lower biotite granite. The zinnwaldite granite contains numerous subhorizontal quartz veins and greisen bodies, both composed of quartz, zinnwaldite and topaz and minor amounts of fluorite and Ti–Sn–W–Nb–Ta oxide minerals. Common Nb–Ta-rich rutile and rare cassiterite, columbite-(Fe) and -(Mn), and minerals of the pyrochlore-supergroup were found in biotite granite in deeper parts of the pluton, whereas common columbite occurs with rare W-rich ixiolite, qitianlingite, pyrochlores, and scheelite in some varieties of zinnwaldite granite. In the uppermost part of the cupola, Ta-rich cassiterite, microlite and pyrochlore are frequently observed. The greisens host predominantly wolframite, scheelite and Ta-poor cassiterite, which are accompanied by columbite-group minerals, rare W-rich ixiolite and qitianlingite. Throughout the pluton, the molar Mn/(Fe + Mn) ratio in columbite increases from 0.15–0.40 in the deeper part of the zinnwaldite granite (depths of 500–635 m) to 0.5–0.9 in granite and greisen in the uppermost part of the pluton (depths of 0–180 m), but no systematic changes in the Ta/(Nb +Ta) ratio were found. On the scale of individual zoned crystals, the rims are always Ta-enriched, whereas the Mn/(Fe + Mn) values in the rims are equal or lower. The Nb, Ta-rich rutile, interiors of the columbite crystals and Ta-rich cassiterite disseminated in the granites are interpreted as products of magmatic crystallization. The Tarich rims of columbite-(Fe) to -(Mn), Ta-poor cassiterite and all wolframite found in the greisen should be attributed to the early hydrothermal (greisenization) stage, whereas W-rich ixiolite, qitianlingite, and pyrochlore-supergroup minerals appear to belong to the later, hydrothermal event at comparatively lower temperature.