Original paper

Kinetics of Al-Si exchange in low and high quartz: calculation of Al diffusion coefficients

Pankrath, Rainer; Flörke, Otto W.

European Journal of Mineralogy Volume 6 Number 4 (1994), p. 435 - 457

72 references

published: Jul 27, 1994
manuscript accepted: Apr 18, 1994
manuscript received: Jun 6, 1990

DOI: 10.1127/ejm/6/4/0435

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Abstract Non-uniform distribution of Al between the three symmetrically equivalent Si sites in low quartz is converted to a random distribution by dry or hydrothermal annealing above 400ºC due to Al-Si exchange, as shown previously by EPR measurements. Rate equations for the Al-Si exchange are derived from the experimental results presented here. We show that the kinetics of the Al-Si exchange reaction are strongly influenced by the type of Si substitution, whether by Al+Na ([AlO4Na]4-) or Al+Li ([AlO4/Li]4-). Rate constants k and activation energies E of the Al-Si exchange differ significantly under identical run conditions according to the [AlO4/Na]4- and [AlO4Li]4- defects. Thus, it is concluded that Na and Li are involved in the rate determining step of the Al-Si exchange reaction. The role of Na and Li is discussed from the electrostatic and structural viewpoints. In the case of [AlO4Na]4- defects, no significant effect of water pressure on the activation energy E of the Al-Si exchange is observed, while the rate constant k decreases with increasing water pressure. In the case of [AlO4/Li]4- defects, the activation energy of the Al-Si exchange in low quartz increases from 278 ± 20 KJ/mole (dry, in air) to 400 ± 25 KJ/mole at 100MPa water pressure, while k decreases. For high quartz, no effect of water pressure is observed with respect to E and k, and the activation energy E is drastically reduced compared with low quartz. From the experimental results obtained on samples from different growth sectors of the same crystal, it is concluded that a vacancy mechanism is responsible for the Al-Si exchange. Based on the "random walk" theory, equations are derived which allow calculation of the diffusion coefficients (D||C and D⟂c) of Al from rate constants (k) of the Al-Si exchange reaction. The calculated diffusion coefficients are in the range 10-24 to 10-27m2s-1. With the method described here, diffusion coefficients can be estimated in temperature ranges where conventional methods fail (e.g. diffusion of radioactive tracers or measurements of electrical conductivity).


quartzelectron paramagnetic resonanceAl-Si exchangekineticsdiffusion coefficients