Original paper

Synthesis of platinum-group minerals under hydrothermal conditions

Evstigneeva, Tatiana; Tarkian, Mahmud

European Journal of Mineralogy Volume 8 Number 3 (1996), p. 549 - 564

24 references

published: Jun 17, 1996
manuscript accepted: Feb 13, 1996
manuscript received: Dec 4, 1994

DOI: 10.1127/ejm/8/3/0549

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Abstract

Abstract : A number of experiments have been carried out using Cl-, Na-, K-, As-, Sn-, Bi-, Pb-, Te-bearing solutions at temperatures between 240 and 500°C in order to synthesize platinum-group minerals (PGM) and to study their relationships under hydrothermal conditions. Metallic platinum, palladium, PtAs2, Pt(As,Sn)2, and PdPb ("Pb-polariteM) were synthesized directly from hydrothermal solutions in the presence of graphite as reducing component. Phase transformations were observed under hydrothermal conditions for some pre-synthesized Pd compounds: Pd bismuthides replace PdS in Cl-Sb-Bi-bearing solutions. However, no Pt-Sb or Pt-Bi phases crystallized under these conditions. Recrystallization of Pt- and Pd-sulphides in slightly acidic solutions with Sb- or Bi-chlorides at 240°C yielded complex multiphase associations including Sb2S3, BiSb3 and Bi2S3. The reactions leading to their formation did not include any platinum. However, froodite (PdBi2) was obtained by recrystallization of PdS + Feo.ssS + FeS2 assemblages in BiCb solution at 240°C. Experiments to investigate if PGE-bearing sulphides can be transformed to sulpharsenides by recrystallization gave negative results. Platinum-group elements (PGE) redistribution under hydrothermal conditions at controlled sulphur fugacity shows that PtS is stable at log/S2 > -3.4 and (Pt,Fe) is very poor in Fe at log/S2 < -6.5 (at 562°C). Experimental data obtained for some PGE-phases (Pt/Pd- and Ir-bearing sulphides) are in good agreement with observations on natural deposits.

Keywords

platinum-group mineralsPGE-bearing sulphide associationshydrothermal synthesis