Co-phenology of Plants and Anthophilous Insects: a Historical Area-geographical Interpretation
Many dry grasslands (Mesobrometum) in SW Germany are characterized by a high % of submediterranean and subcontinental plant and animal species. A phenological analysis (flowering times of entomophilous plants, flight activities of Hymenoptera: Apoidea and Lepidoptera) yields 4 seasonal periods named by the area-geographical centre of their species: eurosiberian period (III, IV); submediterranean period (V, VI); eurosiberian period (VII); eurosiberian period with subcontinental and sub mediterranean elements (VIII, IX). Vegetation, Apido- and Lepidofauna of the same area type correspond in their phenology (co-phenology). The flower-visiting insects of the studied area prefer plants of the same geoelement. The results are based on 1500 data of flower-visiting bees, 800 of butterflies and many references from bibliographical data. It is shown that the history of the flora and fauna is important for the interpretation of the flower-visiting communities.