Take-off and Flight Behaviour of the Tiger-Beetle Species Cicindela hybrida in a Hot Environment (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)
Take-off and flight behaviour of Cicindela hybrida Linnaeus 1758, living on a small sandy spot was recorded during a very hot period of mid august. Timing of take-off to flight sequence -ducking, jumping, elytra opening, first wing-beat - is described. This sequence is stereotype and very fast, lasting only 0.12 s, even when taking off after copulation. Distance-, velocity- and acceleration-time-functions are given and compared to the start - to - run sequence. The flightpath angle at take-off is usually around 40°. Mean speed and maximum acceleration are around 0.6 m s1 and 7 m s2 for flight and approximately 1/4 of this value for running. A take-off jump is carried out with mainly the pedes-II. By the time the end of a jump has been reached the P-I are stretched out to support the outspread elytra in a slightly positive V-position and a moment later they are aided by the P-II.