Environmental Control of Voltinism of the Stinkbug Graphosoma lineatum in the Forest-Steppe Zone (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)
Musolin, Dmitry L; Saulich, Aida H
An experimental study under quasi-natural conditions in the forest-steppe zone was conducted to clarify the seasonal cycle of Graphosoma lineatum Linnaeus 1758 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), a species with a facultative adult winter diapause. It was demonstrated previously that if adults of a new generation emerge in the middle of July all females enter diapause, and thus this species produces only 1 generation per year. In the present study, the emergence of adults was artificially shifted to the end of May-2nd half of June what resulted in reproduction in 69-71 % females. These results supported the possibility that at least a part of the local population of G lineatum can produce 2 generations per year in the forest-steppe zone of Russia in particularly warm years. The environmental conditions and peculiarities of the biology of G lineatum that can promote bivoltinism are discussed, and the seasonal cycle of the species is compared with those of other Heteroptera with facultative adult winter diapause from the forest-steppe zone.