Temperature Requirements of the White Fly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and its Parasitoid Encarsia formosa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
Madueke, Ethel-Doris N.; Coaker, Thomas H
The development of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood 1856 and its parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan 1924 were studied under 3 different constant temperature regimes. The rate of development of E. formosa and T. vaporariorum is 1.3 - 3.0 x faster at 22.5 °C and 27 °C than at 18 °C. The lower threshold temperature for development of ova, larvae (L1, L2, L3, L4) and pupae of T. vaporariorum are 8.5 °C, 11 °C, 11.5 °C, 7 °C, 8.5 °C and 10 °C, resp, and is 13 °C for E. formosa (ovum - imago emergence).