Original paper

Maternal experience can enhance production of resting eggs in Daphnia exposed to the risk of fish predation

Mikulski, Andrzej; Pijanowska, Joanna


In many Daphnia species, hatching of resting (ephippial) eggs requires fertilization. The production of ephippial eggs can occur by individual ontogenesis, but production of males in Daphnia has to be induced by maternal experience. If ephippia appear in a population with no males present, the eggs are condemned to die. This study shows that maternal experience of predator (fish) presence can significantly increase the tendency of females to produce ephippia in a receptive D. magna clone. The involvement of a maternal effect, not only in the production of males but also in the production of resting eggs can potentially reduce the negative effect of asynchrony between these processes.


diapausefish predationsynchronizationmaternal effectdaphnia