Particle emissions from aircraft engines a survey of the European project PartEmis
Petzold, Andreas; Fiebig, Markus; Fritzsche, Lutz; Stein, Claudia; Schumann, Ulrich; Wilson, Chris W.; Hurley, Chris D.; Arnold, Frank; Katragkou, Eleni; Baltensperger, Urs; Gysel, Martin; Nyeki, Stephan; Hitzenberger, Regina; Giebl, Heinrich; Hughes, Kev
An overview of the goals and achievements of the European PartEmis project (Measurement and prediction of emissions of aerosols and gaseous precursors from gas turbine engines) is presented. PartEmis was focussed on the characterisation and quantification of exhaust emissions from a gas turbine engine. The engine was composed of a combustor and a unit to simulate a 3-shaft turbine section (so-called Hot End Simulator; HES). A comprehensive suite of aerosol, gas and chemi-ion measurements were conducted under different, i) combustor and HES operating conditions, ii) fuel sulphur concentrations. Measured aerosol properties were mass and number concentration, size distribution, mixing state, thermal stability of internally mixed particles, hygroscopicity, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation potential, and chemical composition. Furthermore, chemi-ions, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and OH were monitored. The combustor operation conditions corresponded to modern and older engine gas path temperatures at cruise altitude, with fuel sulphur contents (FSC) of 0.05, 0.41, and 1.270 g kg−1. The combustor behaved like a typical aircraft engine combustor with respect to thermodynamic data and main emissions, which suggests that the PartEmis database may be applicable to contemporary aircraft engines. The conclusions drawn from the PartEmis experiment are discussed separately for combustion particles, ultra fine particles, sulphate-containing species and chemi-ions, particle hygrioscopic growth and CCN activation, gaseous organic fraction, and emission properties.