Original paper

Early Cretaceous (Valanginian and Hauterivian) belemnites and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts from a marine hydrothermal vent site and adjacent facies of the Mecsek Mts., Hungary

Bujtor, László; Janssen, Nico M.M.; Verreussel, Roel M.C.H.


The first record of belemnites from fossil hydrothermal vent sites in the Mecsek Mountains of Hungary emphasizes the occurrences of belemnites in Mesozoic chemosynthetic-microbial based ecosystems reported only from cold seep carbonates to date. From the outer shelf-upper bathyal (<300 m) hydrothermal vent site latest valanginian - early hauterivian taxa Adiakritobelus (?), Hibolithes, Duvalia, and Pseudobelus (belemnites) and organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts (a.o. Spiniferites dentatus) are reported. The laterally extending hemipelagic facies yielded latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian taxa, like: Duvalia, Pseudobelus, and Berriasibelus. The reported belemnite assemblage from this vent site and its coeval beds dated the time span of the iron-ore formation and venting more precisely, between the Early Valanginian and earliest Hauterivian. The belemnite and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are typical of the Mediterranean Province of the Tethyan Realm.


valanginianhauterivianbelemnitesorganic-walled dinoflagellate cystsmecsek mountainsstratigraphyhydrothermal venthungary