On the hygrophytic element in the bryoflora of Turkey – a first attempt to high mountain Montio-Cardaminetea communities
Kürschner, Harald; Kırmacı, Mesut; Erdağ, Adnan
Hygrophytic bryophyte communities are one of the most conspicuous vegetation types of the high mountains of Turkey, dominating the numerous springs and edges of fast-running rapids in the subalpine and alpine belt. Although floristic data often are available from many areas, no vegetation studies exist till today, and the communities, community structure and distribution is unknown. A first analysis of these communities, based on presence and absent data, give evidence for at least three communities, widely distributed within the Turkish mountains and the alpine folding belt. Their distribution strongly reflect the altitudinal gradient. Typical for the montane and lower subalpine belt is a Palustriella commutata-Cratoneuron filicinum communitiy (Cratoneuretum commutati), which is replaced in the subalpine-alpine belt by a Bryum schleicheri community (Montio-Bryetum schleicheri). In close contact with the latter, a Palustriella falcata community (Cratoneuretum falcati) exist. Regional aspects (geography, topography) seem to be of less influence on the floristic structure and their distribution and even the parent rock material (bedrock) hardly allows significant differences. Main ecological site factors and requirements obviously refer only to hydrology and climate. Leaving rankless at present, these communities can be allocate to phytosociological units well known from the central European Alps, and thus demonstrate a wide distribution and common vegetation history of these hygrophytic mountain communities within the alpine folding belt.
bryophytes • altitudinal belt • bryum schleicheri community • phytosociology • flushes • palustriella falcata community • spring vegetation • subalpine vegetation • alpine vegetation • palustriella commutata-cratoneuron filicinum community