A Taxonomic Revision of the Genus EntorrhizaC. Weber (Ustilaginales)
Fineran, Judith M.
Entorrhiza is a little known genus which was erected by Weber (1884) to describe fungi producing root swellings, or galls, on some members of the Cyperaceae and Juncaceae. These fungi had previously been assigned to the genus Schinzia Naegeli by Magnus (1878) who based his decision on an examination of the root swellings of Cyperus flavescens L. Magnus believed that the fungus present was similar to Schinzia cellulicola described by Naegeli (1842) in the roots of Iris, and named it Schinzia cypericola Magnus. He also ascribed the fungus producing root swellings on Juncus bufonius L. to the same species. Later Weber (1884) made a detailed investigation of the fungus in Juncus bufonius and concluded that it was a member of the Ustilaginales. As Schinzia had no known affinities with the Ustilaginales and included a heterogeneous assemblage of root-infecting organisms (among them Schinzia alni Woronin on Alnus glutinosa and Schinzia leguminosarum Frank on the Papilionaceae), Weber erected the genus Entorrhiza for the fungus on Juncus bufonius. Entorrhiza was characterised by having single, thick-walled, terminal spores which germinated by producing 1 - 3 germ tubes each bearing a single, falcate sporidium. Weber's decision was criticised by Magnus (1888) and although de Toni in Saccardo's Sylloge Fungorum (1888) accepted Entorrhiza as the generic name for the group, Schinzia has remained in the literature (e. g. Schellenberg, 1911; Swanton, 1912; Bubak, 1916; Dietel, 1928; Mani, 1964). There is an extensive bibliography to the early literature on the genus by Liro (1938) whose work was both comprehensive and authoritative. The genus has been recorded on numerous occasions from Central Europe and Scandinavia, including the Faeroe Islands, but reports from other regions are few. Although there were some early collections of Entorrhiza in Great Britain (Trail, 1884, 1890; Cameron 1886; Schwartz, 1910), the genus has been recorded in only two localities in that country since then (Dennis, 1971). Entorrhiza has only recently been reported in the Southern Hemisphere, from New 2