The species of Cintractia s.l. (Ustilaginales, Basidiomycota)
Cintractia s.l. includes 43 species of smut fungi characterized by dark masses of mostly flattened teliospores and host species belonging to Cyperaceae and Juncaceae. In a recent publication, Cintractia s.l. has been split into five genera based on morphological and molecular data: Cintractia s.s., Tolyposporium and the new genera Gymnocintractia, Leucocintractia, and Stegocintractia. The genus Cintractia s.s. is restricted to species with fine warty teliospores formed in a sterile fungal stroma and enclosed by fungal peridia. Species of Tolyposporium have a similar soral morphology, but irregular roughly ornamented teliospores in balls. Species of Leucocintractia infect their hosts systemically, their sori have sterile stroma as well as fungal peridia, and their spores are covered by irregular warts forming ridges. Species of Gymnocintractia are characterized by foveolate spores and sori without stroma or peridia. These are included now in the genus Ustanciosporium, which was earlier published than Gymnocintractia. Species of Stegocintractia have foveolate spores in sori without stroma and enclosed by peridia formed by thick-walled hyphae. 43 species of Cintractia s.l. including four new species and 28 with new combinations are presented with synonyms, descriptions, drawings, and SEM photographs of teliospores. Keys were elaborated for genera of smut fungi on Juncaceae and Cyperaceae and for species of Cintractia s.l. For about 180 epithets in Cintractia the correct generic position is given. A list of host species with their respective smut species is added.