Bryonectria protonematis (Hypocreales) on Ephemeropsis tjibodensis, the first muscicolous ascomycete of the phyllosphere
The ascomycete Bryonectria protonematis (Hypocreales) is described as a new species. grows as a biotrophic parasite on the persistent protonema of the moss Ephemeropsis tjibodensis (Hookeriales) that forms dense algal-like mats on living leaves of vascular plants in Southeast Asia. The colourless perithecia of B. protonematis develop between the protonemal filaments that are more or less densely covered by hyphae. Excipular, hymenial, and mycelial features match the characters of other Bryonectria species, several of which are hyperepiphyllous, but perithecia differ by size and shape often being much longer than wide. Bryonectria protonematis is one of the few records of fungi growing on protonemata in general, the first record of a muscicolous ascomycete in the phyllosphere, and the third hyperepiphyllous species in Asia.