Revision of the genus Graphiola (Exobasidiales, Basidiomycota)
Piepenbring, Meike; Nold, Fabian; Trampe, Tanja; Kirschner, Roland
The genus Graphiola (Exobasidiales, Basidiomycota) includes microfungi parasitic on palms known from tropical and subtropical regions all around the world. It is revised based on recent collections and herbarium specimens of which five specimens correspond to types. Twelve species are recognized including one new species on Geonoma interrupta from Panama and one new combination by raising Graphiola phoenicis var. trachycarpi to species level. Two previously doubtful species, G. cocoina and G. compressa, are confirmed, whereas G. macrospora remains doubtful. The species are described, illustrated by line drawings, and scanning electron microscopical pictures are provided for the majority of species for the first time. The distinctive characteristics are forms, arrangements, and sizes of fruiting bodies, developments of endoperidia, the surface structure of elaters, positions of primary spores on the basidia, and the ornamentation of the secondary spores. Host data can be used with some restriction. A key for the identification of all known species and an updated list of host names are presented. Molecular data are provided for the new species. The necessity of enhanced collection activity is stressed.