Bryophytes of northern origin in southern Turkey (Amanos Mts., eastern Aladağları) – relicts or indicators for long-range disperal?
The forests of the Black Sea coast of Turkey harbour a rich forest bryophyte flora that derived from a northern floristic element of Laurasian origin. Surprisingly many of them re-occur far in the south in the Fagus orientalis relicts of the Amanos and the eastern foothills of the Aladağları in a general Mediterranean environment. This leads to the question whether these species arrived in recent times by long-range dispersal or are relicts from a more humid late geological period which migrate via the Anatolian diagonal. A life strategy analysis with the main focus on reproduction and dispersal modes indicates a limited and very low long-range dispersal capacity for most of the species. Additional, the distribution patterns show that none of the 44 forest bryophytes analysed are recorded from the mountains of the Anatolian diagonal. Although, long-range dispersal is possible in more than one third of the species, spore dispersal, spore germination and the establishment of population can not observed at sites along the Anatolian diagonal under the present climatic conditions. Thus the study give force to the relict hypothesis and common migration and distribution of the bryophytes together with the Fagus orientalis forests during more humid past geological periods. Most of the species must be seen as "migration relicts" that survived together with the Fagus orientalis forests in South Turkey.