Original paper

Early Pliocene deer of Central and Eastern European regions and inferred phylogenetic relationships

Croitor, Roman


A revision of Early Pliocene deer from Poland, Slovakia, Moldova, Romania, Ukraine, and South Russia is proposed in the present study. The following forms of Cervidae are described: Muntiacus polonicus/pliocaenicus (most probably, only one species), Eostyloceros pidoplitschkoi, Procapreolus moldavicus, Croizetoceros ramosus, “Cervus” warthae, “Cervus” lyra, Arvernoceros cf. ardei, Metacervocerus pardinensis. The article also includes discussion of systematical and taxonomical questions of the cervid genera Pliocervus, Pavlodaria, Capreolus, Croizetoceros, Axis, Rusa, Cervus, and Dama. Croizetoceros is regarded as genus incertae sedis. “Pliocervus kutchurganicus”is a junior synonyme of Procapreolus moldavicus. The ancestral type of deer, evolution, and phylogeny of Cervidae are discussed.


PlioceneEastern EuropeCervidaeSystematicsEvolutionPalaeogeography