Original paper

Revision of Permo-Carboniferous griffenflies (Insecta: Odonatoptera: Meganisoptera) based upon new species and redescription of selected poorly known taxa from Eurasia

Nel, André; Fleck, Günther; Garrouste, Romain; Gand, Georges; Lapeyrie, Jean; Bybee, Seth M.; Prokop, Jakub


The diagnosis of the Meganisoptera is discussed. Paralogus hispanicus sp. nov. is described from the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian of Spain. Those of the Paralogidae and Kohlwaldiidae and the positions of Oligotypus makowskii are discussed. The nomen nudum "Oligotypus britannicus" is transferred from Paralogidae into the Meganeuridae: Tupinae. Solutotherates is transferred in Kohlwaldiidae sit. nov. An emended diagnosis of Meganeuridae is proposed. The diagnoses of Meganeurinae, Piesbergtupinae, and Tupinae are discussed and some important characters redefined. The description of Meganeura monyi is set forth. Meganeura (?) vischerae Zalessky, 1950, is considered as an Insecta incertae sedis stat. nov. Meganeurula selysii and the genus Meganeurula are transferred into the Meganeurinae sit. nov. The genus Gilsonia Meunier, 1909, and the combination Gilsonia titana Meunier, 1909, are restored in Tupinae. The tupine genus Meganeurina Handlirsch, 1919, is restored for Meganeurina confusa Handlirsch, 1919. The diagnosis of the tupine type genus Tupus Sellards, 1906, is set forth, and a new species Tupus gallicus sp. nov. described from the Middle Permian of Lodève. A new diagnosis is given for the genus Arctotypus Martynov, 1932, with the following included species, which are either described or revised: four Russian species Arctotypus sinuatus Martynov, 1932, Arctotypus sylvaensis Martynov, 1940, Arctotypus fortis Zalessky, 1950, Arctotypus giganteus sp. nov., Arctotypus diluculum (Whalley 1980) comb. nov. from UK, and the four species from Lodève Arctotypus gallicus sp. nov., Arctotypus merifonsensis sp. nov., Arctotypus intermedius sp. nov., and Arctotypus (?) undetermined species A. The new genus Permotupus gen. nov. is described for two new species Permotupus ollieorum sp. nov. and Permotupus minor sp. nov. from Lodève. The new genus Curvitupus gen. nov. is described from Curvitupus ariegensis sp. nov. from Lodève, Curvitupus verneti (Laurentiaux-Vieira & Laurentiaux 1963) comb. nov. from France, and two Russian species Curvitupus magnificus (Zalessky 1950) comb. nov. and Curvitupus elongatus (Zalessky 1950) comb. nov. The new genus and species Nannotupus pumilio gen. nov., sp. nov. is described from Lodève. "Palaeotherates" Handlirsch, 1906, and Ephemerites Geinitz, 1865, are Meganisoptera incertae sedis stat. nov. Solutotherates Brauckmann & Zessin, 1989, is transferred in the family Kohlwaldiidae sit. nov. The Lodève griffenfly fauna is the most diverse throughout the entire Palaeozoic, with nine new species in five genera. It is also the most disparate in size with the smallest known species and very large taxa having wing sizes ranging from 50 mm long to more than 210 mm long, respectively. A key to the tupine genera is proposed.


InsectaOdonatopteraMeganisopteraNamurotypidaeKohlwaldiidaeParalogidaeMeganeuridaeMeganeurinaeTupinae gen. nov. sp. nov.taxonomyphylogenymorphologyevolutionCarboniferousPermianFranceUKSpain