The coastal heathland vegetation of the Netherlands and notes on inland Empetrum heath lands
The syntaxonomy of the Dutch Empetrum heath is discussed. Both the dry and the humid heathlands on coastal dunes belong to the suballiance Carici-Empetrion: the associations Carici-Empetretum (new association), Polypodio-Empetretum, Salici-Empetretum and Pyrolo-Salicetum (new description); from wet dune valleys Salici-Ericetum (Ericion tetralicis) is reported. Eight new subassociations are described. The presence of Rosa pimpinellifolia in the heathlands is discussed. A model to explain the differences in the coastal heath is given. In northern parts of the Netherlands there exists an Empetrum race of the inland heath (Genisto-Callunetum, Vaccinio-Callunetum and Ericetum tetralicis). Only in Drente some heathlands show similarities to the Carici-Empetrion and other Scandinavian heaths.