Natürlichkeitsgrade von Pflanzengesellschaften unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Vegetation Mitteleuropas
[Degree of naturalness of plant communities in Middle Europe]
Especially in the last few years different attempts have been made to classify vegetation by degree of naturalness and/or anthropogenic influences. A comparative review of these attempts is given in the first part of the paper. Anthropogenic influences can be differentiated by their kind and intensity as follows: A Extensive land use B Intensive land use C Changes in the flora D Disturbance or destruction of the landscape E Environmental stress by toxic substances. According to the intensity of these influences 4 degrees of naturalness of the vegetation are proposed: I Natural and near-natural vegetation II Seminatural vegetation III Far-from-natural vegetation IV Artificial vegetation.