Fen vegetation of Banff National Park, Canada
This article presents a phytosociological classification of fen vegetation in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada, and its ecological interpretation. One order, one alliance, and two associations with two variants were recognized as follows: Order: Betuletalia pumilae glanduliferae - Alliance: Potentillo (fruticosae)-Betulio pumilae glanduliferae - Association 1: Scorpidio-Scirpetum caespitosi 1': tofieldiosum 1'':typicum - Association 2: Aulacomnio (palustris)-Deschampsietum caespitosae. The order and alliance represent phytocoenoses of minerotrophic and eutrophic wetlands in the subalpine zone in the Rocky Mountains, where parent material consists predominantly of calcareous material. The first association develops in comparatively higher elevations within the subalpine zone and on organic soils with high water table, while the second association in relatively lower elevations and on mineral soils with thick accumulation of organic layer with slightly low water table. These phytocoenoses appear to have developed strongly affected by a cool and relatively moist climate of the subalpine zone and, therefore, their occurence seems to be confined mainly to the subalpine zone.