Die Waldgesellschaften der montanen und subalpinen Stufe des Ostabfalls des Olymp, Griechenland
Habeck, Frank; Reif, Albert
The forest vegetation of the montane and subalpine belt (800-2300 m a.s.l.) of eastern Mt. Olympus, Greece, was analysed using site description and phytosociological methods. Based on these results, conclusions were drawn about structure, successions, and stability of these forests. It could be demonstrated, that beech (Fagus)-forest is not forming a continuous belt, it is restricted to "extrazonal" islands inmidst of Pinus-forest. A subalpine scrub belt ("Krummholz") is absent, tall Pinus heldreichii-trees are forming an open forest up to the treeline. On the eastern-slope Mt. Olympus, the main canopy trees are Fagus sylavatica (beech), Abies X borisii-regis (fir), Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana (black pine), and Pinus heldreichii. Twelve forest types could be distinguished: Six forest types were dominated by Fagus sylvatica. They included in the montane belt a Lathyro alpestris-Fagetum (having three elevation-related subtypes), and in the upper montane and subalpine belt an Orthilio-Fagetum and the Fagus sylvatica-Satureja grandiflora-community. Very locally, transitional stands to Tilio-Acerion forests with Acer pseudo-platanus in the canopy occurred. Six forest types dominated by Pinus trees were distinguished. The "montane" Staehelino-Pinetum pallasianae and the "subalpine" Pinus heldreichii-community could be related to different elevation. Each of them was subdivided into two subtypes. Two forest types dominated by pine trees most likely were seral communities: In the Pinus nigra-Quercetalia pubescenti-petraeae-community (<1200 m a.s.l.), Pinus nigra is "associated" with Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, less frequently with Quercus pubescens. The Pinus heldreichii-Fagetalia-community was found at higher altitudes, and contained Fagus sylvatica in the lower tree tier. Main objective of that study was to investigate the ecological situation of the Fagus-forests of Mt. Olympus. These forests are growing on a solid, dolomitic triassic limestone formation. It could be shown, that the ground vegetation of these deciduous forests is completely changing with increasing elevation. At all elevations, Fagus sylvatica forests prefer shady, north-exposed sites. It appears, that beech on Mt. Olympus is restricted by its limited physiological drought tolerance.