Gelten die biozönotischen Grundprinzipien auch für die landschaftsökologische Ebene? - Standortskomplexe inneralpiner Trockengebiete als Fallbeispiele
[Are biocoenotic principles also applicable for the landscape ecological level? - Examples of habitat complexes of central alpine dry areas]
Schwabe, Angelika; Kratochwil, Anselm
The biocoenotic principles by Thienemann and Krogerus are formulated for the level of landscape sections in the following way as biocoenotic-landscape ecological rules: - "The more the living conditions of a habitat complex deviate from the normal - and, as regards most coenoses/synusia, from the optimum - the greater is the loss of coenoses/synusia; however, the more characteristic and abundant will they become." - "In extreme habitat complexes coenoses/synusia which are ecologically specialized are dominating. These coenoses/synusia are characterized by stenoecious species groups." The anthropogenic impact (extensive: increase, intensive: decrease) acts as a modifying factor upon the number of coenoses/synusia. It must also be taken into account which type of physiotope is meant. These principles are explained on examples taken from the submontane-montane belt of the central alpine areas (Valle d'Aosta, Valais, Vinschgau, Upper Inn Valley/Engadin, Valtellina). The areas dealt with are rock-/grassland- and moraine-physiotope swith standardizable vegetation complexes. Depending on the xerothermy of the habitat complexes and the decrease of the yearly precipitations the number of phytocoenoses per investigated area decreases between the valley mouth region and the centre of the valley and starts increasing again with rising altitude and humidity in the upper montane level. This regularity can be superimposed by antropo-/zoogenic impacts (example Vinschgau).