The forest vegetation from the Garda lake (N Italy)
Brullo, Salvatore; Guarino, Riccardo
A study about the forest vegetation occurring along the shores of the Garda lake is presented. The investigation emphasized a noteworthy vegetation diversity, related both to the habitat heterogeneity and to the still present traces of several climatic changes that affected the area beginning from the Quaternary period. The examinated woodlands are the result of a compenetration between evergreen characteristic species of the Quercetea ilicis class, representing relicts of the climatic vegetation during the peak of the post-glacial anathermic phase, and deciduous mesothermophilous elements belonging to the Querco-Fagetea class order, which better reflect the present macroclimate. On the basis of historical, chorological and ecological factors, 10 associations have been individuated, belonging to 5 alliances: Quercion ilicis, Erico-Querciop ilicis, Tilio platyphylli-Acerion pseudoplatani, Ostryo-Carpinion orientalis and Alno-Ulmion. Apart from the floristic-physiognomic point of view, the associations result well characterized also by their different edaphic, microclimatic and topographic exigences; Quercetea ilicis stands are most often linked to well-drained hardly-sloping sites, where there is little competition due to more mesic species and where the human impact is lower.