Syntaxonomic analysis of beechwoods in Macedonia (former Republic of Yugoslavia)
Dzwonko, Zbigniew; Loster, Stefania; Dubiel, Eugeniusz; Drenkovski, Rade
Until recently the beechwoods of Macedonia were far less known than the woodland communities occurring in the northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula. This was mainly due to the scantness of phytosociological data from that area. In the 1980s, many new relevés were made in the beechwoods of Macedonia. Together with the data published earlier they formed a set of 172 relevés. On the basis of numerical classification of these data a syntaxonomic revision of the beechwood communities of that area was carried out. Six associations were distinguished and characterized. The regional suballiance Doronico columnae-Fagenion moesiacae was proposed to include the associations of mountain and high-mountain mesophilous beechwoods (Doronico columnae-Fagetum, Campanulo trichocalycinae-Fagetum), beech-maple woods (Aceri heldreichii-Fagetum) and fir-beech woods (Abieti-Fagetum). Acidophilous beechwoods (Luzulo luzuloidis-Fagetum) and thermophilous beech-maple woods (Aceri obtusati-Fagetum) were also distinguished. The results of numerical ordination by canonical variates analysis (CVA) with environmental variables and the values of Landolt's indicators showed that the main directions of variation among the types of communities were significantly correlated with altitude and with the indicator values for reaction, humidity, temperature and light. These variables clearly distinguished all associations and their subassociations and variants.