Phenological phases and phenological species groups of mesic beech forests and their suitability for climatological monitoring
By means of species groups with similar flowering behaviour (similar time of a start to full flowering) nine phenophases of beech forests in central Europe have been established, shown by a phenological diagram. These symphenological groups and phenophases are a precise instrument for climatic biomonitoring. The example of a submontane calcareous beech forest (1983-1999) shows the possibilities for a long-term monitoring of climatic changes. A warming up since 1989 is indicated in Fig. 2.