Original paper

Vegetacion alto andina de Parinacota (norte de Chile) y una sinopsis de la vegetacion de la Puna meridional

Luebert, Federico; Gajardo, Rodolfo

Phytocoenologia Band 35 Heft 1 (2005), p. 79 - 128

published: Apr 15, 2005

DOI: 10.1127/0340-269X/2005/0035-0079

BibTeX file

ArtNo. ESP024003571005, Price: 29.00 €

Download preview PDF Buy as PDF

Abstract

The vegetation of the Parinacota Province (18°12'S, 69°08'W) is studied using the Zürich-Montpellier school of phytosociology methods. The study area is located in a mountainous high andean environment, between 3200 and 5300 m of elevation, under the influence of tropical xeric to pluviseasonal bioclimates, with summer rainfall. Sixtysix phytosociological relevés were performed in the field and were analyzed by tabular comparison using additional already published relevés.Four phytosociological classes include all zonal vegetation of the study area: Parastrephio lepidophyllae-Fabianetea densae, supratropical, orotropical and cryorotropical dwarf-scrubs and grasslands; Polylepidetea tarapacano-besseri, orotropical Polylepis forests; Anthochloo lepidulae-Dielsiochloetea floribundae, cryorotropical vegetation of rocky and solifluxional soils. Supratropical desert scrubs of the alliance Ambrosio artemisioidis-Atriplicion imbricatae, are included in the new order Atriplicetalia imbricatae of the class Opuntietea sphaericae. Azonal vegetation is included into the classes Plantagini rigidae-Distichietea muscoidis (high andean mires and bogs), Potamogetonetea (submerged vegetation) and Lemnetea minoris (floating plant communities).Fourteen associations were recognized, five of which are new (Oreocereo leucotrichi-Ambrosietum artemisioidis, Lophopappetum tarapacani, Diplostephio meyenii-Fabianetum ramulosae, Wernerio aretioidis-Parastrephietum lucidae and Senecioni zoellneri-Azorelletum compactae) and one is proposed as provisional (Deyeuxio curvulae-Wernerietum incisae). One new alliance (Diplostephio meyenii-Fabianion ramulosae) and one provisional alliance (Senecionion zoellneri-scorzoneraefolii) are described, discussing their syntaxonomy on the basis of 1115 relevés already published for the involved classes, including the relevés published here. Four vegetation belts were recognized according to the altitudinal variation of the vegetation physiognomy, floristic composition and bioclimate. Climatic influences of the temperature and humidity on the altitudinal zonation of vegetation belts are discussed in the context of tropical high Andes.Two main floristic elements can be distinguished in the Parinacota Province: Pacific Desert and Puna. The first one is the more important component at low altitude, decreasing its participation in higher elevation habitats, where the second becomes dominant. The origin of these elements is discussed on the basis of paleoecological data: the Pacific Desert element seems to be mainly associated to the development of aridity in the western slope of the Andes since the Miocene, while the Puna element appears to be originated due to the raise of the Andes during the Plio-Pleistocene. The phytogeographical affinities of the Parinacota Province with the Mediterranean Andes and the Paramo are also discussed.

Kurzfassung

The vegetation of the Parinacota Province (18°12'S, 69°08'W) is studied using the Zürich-Montpellier school of phytosociology methods. The study area is located in a mountainous high andean environment, between 3200 and 5300 m of elevation, under the influence of tropical xeric to pluviseasonal bioclimates, with summer rainfall. Sixtysix phytosociological relevés were performed in the field and were analyzed by tabular comparison using additional already published relevés.Four phytosociological classes include all zonal vegetation of the study area: Parastrephio lepidophyllae-Fabianetea densae, supratropical, orotropical and cryorotropical dwarf-scrubs and grasslands; Polylepidetea tarapacano-besseri, orotropical Polylepis forests; Anthochloo lepidulae-Dielsiochloetea floribundae, cryorotropical vegetation of rocky and solifluxional soils. Supratropical desert scrubs of the alliance Ambrosio artemisioidis-Atriplicion imbricatae, are included in the new order Atriplicetalia imbricatae of the class Opuntietea sphaericae. Azonal vegetation is included into the classes Plantagini rigidae-Distichietea muscoidis (high andean mires and bogs), Potamogetonetea (submerged vegetation) and Lemnetea minoris (floating plant communities).Fourteen associations were recognized, five of which are new (Oreocereo leucotrichi-Ambrosietum artemisioidis, Lophopappetum tarapacani, Diplostephio meyenii-Fabianetum ramulosae, Wernerio aretioidis-Parastrephietum lucidae and Senecioni zoellneri-Azorelletum compactae) and one is proposed as provisional (Deyeuxio curvulae-Wernerietum incisae). One new alliance (Diplostephio meyenii-Fabianion ramulosae) and one provisional alliance (Senecionion zoellneri-scorzoneraefolii) are described, discussing their syntaxonomy on the basis of 1115 relevés already published for the involved classes, including the relevés published here. Four vegetation belts were recognized according to the altitudinal variation of the vegetation physiognomy, floristic composition and bioclimate. Climatic influences of the temperature and humidity on the altitudinal zonation of vegetation belts are discussed in the context of tropical high Andes.Two main floristic elements can be distinguished in the Parinacota Province: Pacific Desert and Puna. The first one is the more important component at low altitude, decreasing its participation in higher elevation habitats, where the second becomes dominant. The origin of these elements is discussed on the basis of paleoecological data: the Pacific Desert element seems to be mainly associated to the development of aridity in the western slope of the Andes since the Miocene, while the Puna element appears to be originated due to the raise of the Andes during the Plio-Pleistocene. The phytogeographical affinities of the Parinacota Province with the Mediterranean Andes and the Paramo are also discussed.

Keywords

phytosociologysyntaxonomypuna provinceandean atacama desertplant associations