A phytosociological survey of the deciduous temperate forests of mainland Northeast Asia
Krestov, Pavel V.; Song, Jong-Suk; Nakamura, Yukito; Verkholat, Valentina P.
This study represents the first survey of the temperate deciduous forests of main-land Northeast Asia on the territories of the Russian Far East, northeast China and Korea. A total of 1200 relevés are used, representing nemoral broadleaved (Fraxinus mandshurica, Kalopanax septemlobus, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis)-coniferous (Abies holophylla, Pinus koraiensis) forests, and broadleaved Quercus spp. forests. The vegetation is classified into 4 orders, 12 alliances, 50 associations, 36 subassociations and 8 variants. One order, Lespedezo bicoloris-Quercetalia mongolicae, 4 alliances Rhododendro daurici-Pinion koraiensis, Phrymo asiaticae-Pinion koraiensis, Corylo heterophyllae-Quercion mongolicae and Dictamno dasycarpi-Quercion mongolicae, and 14 associations are described for the first time. The communities are placed into two classes. Quercetea mongolicae reflects monsoon humid maritime climate with the amount of summer precipitation higher than winter precipitation and the lack of a period of moisture deficit. They occur in Korea, montane regions of China east of the Lesser Hingan and the Sikhote-Alin. Querco mongolicae-Betuletea davuricae unites forests in conditions of semiarid subcontinental climate with summer precipitation considerably higher than winter precipitation and with the period of moisture deficit in spring and early summer. They occupy mostly the regions of northeast China and eastern Russia west of the Lesser Hingan and in the low elevation belts of the southern Sikhote-Alin.