Plant communities dominated by Pinus mugo agg. in Central Europe – comparison of the oligotrophic communities rich in Sphagnum
Šibík, Jozef; Dítě, Daniel; Šibíková, Ivana; Pukajová, Drahoslava
This paper deals with ecology, syntaxonomy and nomenclature of species poor Pinus mugo agg. communities in Central Europe. Cluster analyses have generally confirmed the geographical and altitudinal differentiation of Pinus mugo scrubs on peaty soils, and refer to important differentiation between zonal dwarf pine stands and stands on raised bogs and their margins, or in inversion sites. Individual clusters markedly differ in their affinity to major ecological factors. They are associated with light availability and moisture, and correlated with low nutrient availability and acid soil reaction. Three main types are distinguished: subalpine communities of the Western Carpathians and Sudetes belonging to the Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 (the Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995); slightly wooded raised bogs and their margins dominated by Pinus mugo s. str. in (montane) subalpine areas of European mountains (the Sphagno magellanici-Pinetum mugo Hadač, Ježek et Březina 1969 nom. cons. propos.); and slightly wooded sub-continental Pinus rotundata stands of raised bogs and their margins (laggs) in montane areas of Hercynian-Sudetic region (the Pinetum rotundatae Kästner et Flößner 1933 corr. Mucina in Steiner 1993). Different physiognomy of raised bogs and bog margins plant communities, dominated by shrubs and trees, reflects the different ecological characteristics of their stands. Sphagno magellanici-Pinetum mugo and the Pinetum rotundatae were previously evaluated within the raised bog communities (the Oxycocco-Sphagnetea Br.-Bl. et R. Tx. ex Westhoff et al. 1946) and the montane spruce woodlands (the Vaccinio-Piceetea Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. et al. 1939), however we propose to include them within the Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetea sylvestris Passarge 1968 class, which includes more or less peaty, azonal, oligotrophic coniferous tree- and shrub-communities in the boreal and mountain regions.