Syntaxonomical revision of the communities with Rumex alpinus L. in the Carpathians
The paper presents a syntaxonomical revision of plant communities in the Carpathians dominated by Rumex alpinus L. The study has been based on 252 published relevés obtained in various Carpathian massifs, presenting phytocoenoses of anthropogenic (zoogenic) origin, and probably natural ones as well. As a result of numerical analyses, three associations were distinguished: Aconito firmi-Rumicetum alpini, Heracleo palmati-Rumicetum alpini (which are probably natural associations), and an anthropogenic association known as Rumicetum alpini. Within Rumicetum alpini, three subassociations (senecionetosum nemorensis, poetosum annue, typicum), two geographical variants (East-Carpathian and West-Carpathian), and some altitudinal forms (high-montane and low-montane) were distinguished. Aconito-Rumicetum alpini and Heracleo-Rumicetum alpini were placed within the class Mulgedio-Aconitetea and Rumicetum alpini within the class Galio-Urticetea. The discussion includes the origin of the phytocoenoses and their temporal variability.