The phytosociology and ecology of saline vegetation with Scorzonera parviflora across the Pannonian-Western Balkan gradient
Dítě, Daniel; Eliáš jr., Pavol; Šuvada, Róbert; Píš, Vladimír; Melečková, Zuzana
The phytosociology and ecology of Scorzonera parviflora stands were studied in the Pannonian Basin and Western Balkans. In total, we used 60 relevés (46 collected for this study and 14 from the literature) for the ordination analysis. Optimal conditions for S. parviflora are species-poor coastal habitats in regions with hot summers and with high soil salinity and nutrient-richness. The species reached high cover values in most cases (25–50%) and it often dominated the stand. The classification of phytosociological data shows four floristically and ecologicaly well characterized clusters. Cluster 1 was identified as the rare association Junco maritimi-Scorzoneretum parviflorae, sampled only in coastal Croatia (on the island of Pag) and inland Hungary (Fertőszéplak). Cluster 2 groups meadow-like salt marsh vegetation in transition between two vegetation types, Limonio narbonensis-Puccinellietum festuciformis and Trifolio-Hordeetum secalini. Cluster 3 represents the typical variant of the Scorzonero parviflorae-Juncetum gerardii, while cluster 4 was determined as a variant with Tripolium pannonicum of the Scorzonero parviflorae-Juncetum gerardii characterized by a higher presence of obligate halophytes (Tripolium pannonicum, Puccinellia distans agg. and Plantago maritima) than in cluster 3. Our study shows that vegetation with Scorzonera parviflora in inland Central and SE Europe belongs to the Juncion gerardii and stands of coastal Croatia are related to the Juncion maritimi alliance. The species composition and the classification of the examined stands in the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins were influenced more by abiotic environmental factors than by current management.