Synthesis of the cell wall in algae
Domozych, David S.
Abstract The cell walls of green, brown and red algae consist of a complex composite of fibrillar polysaccharides embedded in a matrix of polysaccharides and proteins. The deposition and incorporation of these polymers into the wall require highly coordinated activities of the cell’s endomembrane and cytoskeletal machinery that act in concert with developmental and environmental signals. Most polymers are synthesized in the Golgi Apparatus, packaged in Golgi vesicles and transported to deposition sites by cytoskeletal components. Upon incorporation into the wall architecture, polymers are often remodeled. For fibrillar polymers like cellulose, microfibril synthesis is centered on plasma membrane-based complexes. The recent use of molecular technologies represents a critical “next” step in deciphering the biosynthetic pathways and regulatory controls intrinsic in algal cell wall development.