Original paper

Controlled, ice-cored moraines: sediments and geomorphology. An example from Ragnarbreen, Svalbard

Ewertowski, Marek; Kasprzak, Leszek; Szuman, Izabela; Tomczyk, Aleksandra M.


End moraine of the Ragnarbreen consists of three subzones: (1) outer moraine ridge, (2) culmination moraine ridge and (3) inner moraine plateau. Reworking processes were and still are the main factor influencing the morphology and sediment distribution in the end moraine complex of the Ragnarbreen. However, the intensity of gravity flows is much lower now than it was in the early stages of end moraine complex development. Presently the end, ice-cored moraine complex of the Ragnarbreen is stable - more than 90% percent of its area does not undergo severe transformation - except for small areas that are undercut by rivers or streams. The stability of the ice-cored moraines is due mainly to the thickness of the covering debris, which protects the ice from melting. The occurrence of fine sediments on the contemporary hills suggests that the end moraine complex has undergone at least one cycle of topographic inversion. The analysis of landforms and deposits occurring in the end moraine complex of the Ragnarbreen revealed patterns in the morphology such as the lineation of hillocks and depressions, parallel to the edge of the moraine complex.


arcticspitsbergensvalbardhigh-arctic glacierice-cored morainesglacial sedimentsmorphologyresedimentation processesredeposition