Original paper

A portable simulator for investigating rain-on-snow events

Juras, R.; Pavlásek, J.; Děd, P.; Tomášek, V.; Máca, P.

Abstract

This paper deals with ways of simulating rain-on-snow events caused by high-intensity, short-duration precipitation. A low-cost rainfall simulator was developed for the purposes of this experiment. This device enables rainfall of varying intensity and duration to be simulated, and automatically monitors some components of the mass and energy balance, consisting of the outflow rate, the temperature of the inflow and outflow water, the air temperature, and the temperature in various positions in the snow cover. Artificial rain intensities ranging from 40 mm h-1 to 100 mm h-1 produced by a single nozzle under water pressure ranging from 0.7 bar to 1.65 bar were tested. The results of a field test revealed a limited retardation and transformation function of ripe snow cover during extreme rainfall events.

Keywords

rainfall simulationsnowoutflowwater behaviour in snow