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Senckenbergiana biologica Band 86 Heft 1

2006. 125 pages, 21x30cm, 560 g
Language: English

(Senckenbergiana biologica, Band 86 Heft 1)

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Contents

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M. Gudo: Hydromechanical considerations on the origin of the pentaradial body
structure of echioderms (Echinodermata) 1-10
A. V. Tanasevitch & M. I. Saaristo: Reassessment of the Nepalese species
of the genus Lepthyphantes Menge s. l. with descriptions of new
Micronetinae genera and species (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Micronetinae) 11-38
A. Smolis & D. Skarzynski: A new species of Friesea Dalla Torre 1895
from Peru (Insecta, Collembola, Neanuridae) 39-45
G. Bredfeld & A. Griegel: Short Communication - Acanthoneelidus nom. n. for the
genus Acanthothorax Bredfeld & Griegel 1999 from northwestern Poland
(Insecta, Collembola, Neelidae) 46
D. Braasch: Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria) kovaci subg. n., sp. n., a new
mayfly from northern Thailand (Insecta, Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae) 47-53
J. Berzosa: Some new Neotropical species of Frankliniella Karny in the
Senckenberg collection, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) (Insecta,
Thysanoptera, Thripidae) 55-74
J.-P. Kopelke: Description of the female of Euura myrtilloides Kopelke
1996, with a key to the European species of the atra-group (Hymenoptera,
Tenthredinidae, Nematinae) 75-84
D. Erber & M. Schöller: Revision of the Cryptocephalus-species of the
Canary Islands and Madeira (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae,
Cryptocephalinae) 85-107
I. Hahn, U. Römer & R.P. Schlatter: Population numbers and status of land
birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes,
Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes) 109-125

Abstracts top ↑

Hydromechanical considerations on the origin of the pentaradial body structure of echinoderms (Echinodermata) Michael Gudo Abstract When echinoderms are conceptualized as hydraulic entities, the early evolution of this group can be presented in a scenario which describes how a bilateral ancestor (an enteropneust-like organism) gradually evolved into a pentaradial echinoderm. According to this scenario, the arms are outgrowths from the anterior/posterior body axis of a bilateral pterobranchia-like intermediate. These outgrowths developed when the originally U-shaped mesentery of the intestinal tract formed loops, and correspondingly, the tensile chords of the mesentery were attached to the body wall in five loops. The wall faces between these regions of tensile chords could bulge out under the hydraulic pressure of the body coelom. The originally more or less round body cavity was deformed into a pneu with five bulges. The loops of the gut forced a roughly symmetric arrangement, which was enhanced by a physical fact: five pneus as well as one pneu with five internal tethers, naturally adopt a pentaradial pattern of ‘minimum contact surfaces’, as the most economic arrangement. This part of the body became shorter along its longitudinal axis, but gained volume by the five bulges. The bulges came in contact with the tentacular crown, placed directly in front of them, and began to grow under the tentacle bases. The more the bulges extended along the tentacles, forming the so-called arms, the better was the mechanical support for the tentacles, which are completely integrated in the arms. Only the paired end-branches of the tentacles project and the pentaradial ambulacral system with many ambulacral podia was the result. These evolutionary transformations were accompanied by certain histological modifications, such as the development of mutable connective tissues and skeletal elements that fused to ossicles and provided shape stabilization in the form of a calcareous skeleton in the tissues of the body wall. The resultant organism was an ancestral eleutherozoan echinoderm (Ur-Echinoderm) with an enlarged metacoel stabilized by hydraulic pressure working against a capsule of mutable connective tissue, skeletal elements and longitudinal muscles. Key words: Hydraulic principle, engineering morphology, functional design, anagenetic scenario, Chordata, Ambulacraria, New Animal Phylogeny Reassessment of the Nepalese species of the genus Lepthyphantes Menge s. l. with descriptions of new Micronetinae genera and species (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Micronetinae) Andrei V. Tanasevitch & Michael I. Saaristo Abstract More micronetine spiders from Nepalese Himalaya are recorded, and the taxonomic position of the Nepalese Lepthyphantes species are reviewed. Descriptions are given of four new genera, namely Ascetophantes gen. n. (Lepthyphantes asceticus Tanasevitch 1987 as the type species), Claviphantes gen. n. (Lepthyphantes bifurcatus Tanasevitch 1987 as the type species), Fistulaphantes gen. n. (Fistulaphantes canalis sp. n. as the type species), and Spiralophantes gen. n. (Spiralophantes mirabilis sp. n. as the type species), as well as 12 new species (all holotype males in SMF, Frankfurt am Main), namely Fistulaphantes canalis sp. n., Indophantes agamus sp. n., Mughiphantes bicornis sp. n., M. cuspidatus sp. n., M. falxus sp. n., M. inermus sp. n., M. longiproper sp. n., M. restrictus sp. n., M. setosus sp. n., Spiralophantes mirabilis sp. n., Tenuiphantes altimontanus sp. n., and T. crassus sp. n. The following new combinations are also presented: Anguliphantes nepalensis (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., Ascetophantes asceticus (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., Claviphantes bifurcatus (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., C. bifurcatoides (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., Mughiphantes alticola (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. anachoretus (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. ancoriformis (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. faustus (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. numilionis (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. occultus (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. rotundatus (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. setifer (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. sherpa (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., M. yeti (Tanasevitch 1987) comb. n., and Palliduphantes theosophicus (Tanasevitch 1987), all ex Lepthyphantes. Further, Indophantes bengalensis Saaristo & Tanasevitch 2003 is recorded from the Nepalese Himalaya for the first time. In addition, a table of distribution of the Nepalese Micronetinae is presented. Key words: Spiders, taxonomy, new species, new genera, Himalaya, Nepal, mountains. A new species of Friesea Dalla Torre 1895 from Peru (Insecta, Collembola, Neanuridae) Adrian Smolis & Dariusz Skarżyński Abstract A new species of Collembola is described from the Peruvian Andes. Friesea peruensis sp. n. (holotype female in coll. Department of Biodiversity and Evolutionary Taxonomy, Wrocław University, Poland) has 5 + 5 eyes, reduced furca (mucro absent) with 3 + 3 microchaetae and abdominal segment VI with two spines in position m1 on distinct papilla. It can be distinguished from related species F. landwehri Christiansen & Bellinger 1980 and F. woyciechowskii Weiner 1980 by the following characters: chaetae p1 on abd. V and a1, a2, m2 on abd. VI clavate, even anal lobes with 2 + 2 antegenital microchaetae, unpaired anal lobe with 2 microchaetae. Key words: Taxonomy, Neotropics, Peruvian Andes. Short Communication - Acanthoneelidus nom. n. for the genus Acanthothorax Bretfeld & Griegel 1999 from northwestern Poland (Insecta, Collembola, Neelidae) Gerhard Bretfeld & Alfred Griegel Abstract : For Acanthothorax Bretfeld & Griegel 1999, which is a homonym, the new name Acanthoneelidus nom. n. is proposed. Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria) kovaci subg. n., sp. n., a new mayfly from northern Thailand (Insecta, Ephemeroptera, Heptageniidae) Dietrich Braasch Abstract Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria) kovaci subg. n., sp. n. is described from a male collected at light and a larva at the bank of the small river Nam Lang in northern Thailand. Holotype male deposited in SMF (Senckenberg-Museum, Frankfurt am Main), SMF-Eph. 125. The assignment to the genus Compsoneuria Eaton 1881 is discussed. A list of other genera of Heptageniidae and families of Ephemeroptera collected at the same location is given. The genus Trichogenia Braasch & Soldán 1988 is recorded from Thailand for the first time. Key words: New taxa, new records, Trichogenia maxillaris, Oriental region. Some new Neotropical species of Frankliniella Karny in the Senckenberg collection, Frankfurt am Main (Germany) (Insecta, Thysanoptera, Thripidae) Jacinto Berzosa Abstract Nine Neotropical species of Frankliniella Karny 1910 are described as new to science, i.e. F. torquis sp. n. and F. wedeliae sp. n. from Belize; F. cassiae sp. n. from Costa Rica; F. aliaepennae sp. n., F. espeletiae sp. n., F. paramorum sp. n. and F. regentis sp. n. from Colombia; F. incerta sp. n. from Ecuador; and F. gracilis sp. n. from Argentina. The holotypes of these species are deposited in the Forschunginstitut (Research Institute) Senckenberg, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Key words: new species, Neotropics, Central and South America. Description of the female of Euura myrtilloides Kopelke 1996, with a key to the European species of the atra-group (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae, Nematinae) Jens-Peter Kopelke Abstract The Northern European species Euura (Euura) myrtilloides Kopelke 1996 belongs to the atragroup of the genus Euura (Tenthredinidae: Nematinae) which formerly has been revised by the author (Kopelke 1996). The atra-group is composed of nine species which usually form more or less spindle-shaped and unilarval stem galls. The morphological characters of the females of E. myrtilloides had previously been undescribed. Females of this species were reared by the author first from the collectings of 2001. Altogether 327 intact stem galls of this species were clipped from willow twigs and were reared under laboratory and outdoor conditions. The taxonomic characters of the female of Euura myrtilloides are described and illustrated. Supplementary, an identification key is presented for adults and galls of the species of the atra-group. Revision of the Cryptocephalus-species of the Canary Islands and Madeira (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) Dieter Erber & Matthias Schöller Abstract The types of all species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy 1762 occurring on the islands Tenerife, Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma, Hierro, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote and Madeira were studied. Lectotypes were designated for Cryptocephalus nitidicollis Wollaston 1864, C. crenatus Wollaston 1854 and C. puncticollis Wollaston 1864. The following synonymies were recognised: C. nitidicollis Wollaston 1864 = C. validicornis Lindberg 1963; C. nubigena Franz 1982 = C. palmensis Franz 1982. The status of C. crenatus, C. puncticollis and C. trapezicollis Lindberg 1953 remains unchanged. All these species were found to belong to the subgenus Burlinius Lopatin 1965. A revised diagnosis of Burlinius is given. An identification key is given. The male and female genitalia are figured as well as the kotpresse. The detailed structure of the endophallus has been examined for the first time, terms for these structures are suggested and a hypotheses on the functional morphology is presented. Faunistic records are listed and maps are given. Key words: Cryptocephalini, Burlinius, endophallus, Tenerife, Gomera, Gran Canaria, La Palma, Hierro, Fuerteventura, Lanzarote Population numbers and status of land birds of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile (Aves: Falconiformes, Columbiformes, Strigiformes, Caprimulgiformes, Passeriformes) Ingo Hahn, Uwe Römer & Roberto P. Schlatter Abstract Results of a recent land bird population survey of the Juan Fernandez Archipelago are presented. To additionally gain indications for possible tendencies, two censuses with a seven year interval were carried out (199 4/95 and 2001/02). During the 111 line transect counts 2496 bird records were made, covering the eleven resident species and the three islands (Robinson Crusoe, Alejandro Selkirk, Santa Clara). On base of this total bird numbers were calculated, including additional data of distribution and ecology, for each island, habitat type, and species. For the entire archipelago (9380 ha) in 2001/02 a total of 15 175 land bird specimens is calculated (1.62 ind./ha). Non-endemics were more abundant than endemics (63:37%). Robinson Crusoe shows the highest overall land bird density (2.56 ind./ha), however, mainly basing on non-endemics (70%). Contrarily Alejandro Selkirk hosts much lower individual numbers (0.65/ha), but endemics take a higher proportion on the overall land bird community (65%). Three of the endemic taxa possess very low total population sizes: Falco sparverius fernandensis, Sephanoides fernandensis, and especially Aphrastura masafuerae with only about 140 individuals. Although differences between the two study periods generally may be related to natural fluctuations, the populations of the mentioned taxa probably have suffered strong decline since human impact began in 1574. Alteration of habitats, introduction of predators, and immigration of competitive birds seem to be the main threats for these endemics. Basing on these results, the archipelago represents not only the most important endemic bird area of Chile and in the south-east Pacific Ocean, but also the most threatened one including several endangered endemics. Conservation management should include monitoring of the bird populations, basic research of their ecology (especially reproduction), and removal of introduced (plant and animal) species. Eradication campaigns should start with goats on Alejandro Selkirk, rabbits on Santa Clara, and cats in Robinson Crusoe’s settlement. Key words: Alejandro Selkirk, biosphere reserve, island birds, bird census, bird habitats, endangered species, national park, nature conservation, Robinson Crusoe, transect method.