cover

E. Stach:

Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology

3., rev. and enlarged ed. by E. Stach, Translated by M.-Th. Mackowsky, M. Teichmüller et al. and Engl. rev. by D. G. Murchison

1982. XIV, 535 pages, 204 figures, 49 tables, 6 plates, 16x24cm, 1300 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-443-01018-8, bound, price: 69.00 €

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Keywords

organic mattercoalpeatpeatificationbitumencoalificationvitrinitevitrinite reflectioncokemacerals

Contents

English Description top ↑

Coal petrology has undergone extremely rapid development since the appearance of the Second Edition of the "Textbook of Coal Petrology" in 1975. The advances have been not only in the techniques and methods used but also in applications to geological and industrial problems.
The surprisingly rapid depletion of all available stocks of the Second Edition can be attributed, among other things, to the fact that those now keenly interested in the techniques and results of coal petrology include not only coal scientists but also geologists, geophysicists and petrologists in neighbouring fields. Much new information has become available on matters relating to coal facies and the origin of macerals as a result of studies on North American peat occurrences and of fluorescence microscopy of coals and oil shales. As with petroleum research, some of the most significant advances have come from the integration of coal petrographic and organic geochemical studies.
Computers have led to technical advances in maceral analysis, reflectance measurement and the characterization of fluorescence spectra.
Reflected light fluorescence microscopy has been notably productive of new results for both coals and petroleum source rocks. It is for this reason that the Third Edition of the "Textbook" includes two colour plates to illustrate fluorescence.
Microscopic techniques for the determination of rank have been of special value since measurements of vitrinite reflectance in different rocks are applied to the assessment of the degree of diagenesis and metamorphism, to unravelling the tectonic history of sedimentary basins and to estimating palaeogeothermal gradients. In petroleum geology the reflectance of vitrinite is now widely accepted as the best measure of maturity of source rocks. The use of fluorescence microscopy has become indispensable to the petroleum industry because it enables oil-generating macerals to be recognized and their abundance estimated. "Coal petrology" in a narrow sense has given way to the much broader pursuit of "organic petrology". Coal petrographic studies now provide insights into the process of carbonization and liquefaction. The formation of coke has been shown to be influenced (amongst other things) by the way in which the reactive macerals and inertinite are associated with each other in the coal.
Comparative studies of maceral composition and rank with those of the relevant hydrogenation residues enable conversion rates and efficiencies to be assessed for the various coals.
Numerous additions (109 pages with 5 plates, 2 of which coloured, 45 figures and 10 tables) to the previous second edition appear after the original relevant sections. New references will be found separately at the end of the previous literature section.

Contents top ↑

1. Introduction and historical survey by E. STACH (translation: F. ZIERKE and
G. H. TAYLOR) 1
2. Fundamentals of coal petrology 5
2.1 The geological basis of coal formation by M. TEICHMÜLLER and R. TEICHMÜLLER
(translation: D. G. MURCHISON) 5
2.11 Origin of peat swamps 5
2.111 Evolutionary development of the flora 5
2.112 Climate 6
2.113 Palaeogeographic and tectonic requirements 9
2.113.1 Palaeogeography 10
2.113.2 Tectonic structure 16
2.12 Peat growth, compression and the time of coal formation 17
2.13 Development of the coal facies 18
2.131 Type of deposition (autochthonous, allochthonous) 19
2.132 Peat-forming plant communities 20
2.133 Depositional milieux (telmatic, limnic, brackish-marine, calcium-rich) 27
2.134 Nutrient supply (eutrophic, oligotrophic) 30
2.135 pH value, bacterial activity, sulphur 31
2.136 Temperature of the peat 34
2.137 Redox potential (aerobic, anaerobic) 34
2.138 Characteristics of coal facies in different geologic periods
and different coal basins 36
2.14 Diagenesis of peat and Coalification 37
2.141 Peat diagenesis (beatification) 37
2.142 Coalification 38
2.142.1 The Coalification process 38
2.142.2 Causes of Coalification 55
2.142.3 Coalification and bituminization 66
2.142.4 Coalification and diagenesis of minerogenic rocks 82
2.2 The microscopically recognizable constituents of coal 87
2.21 The macerals of coal by E. STACH (translation: F. ZIERKE and
G. H. TAYLOR) 87
2.211 The concept of ''macerals` 87
2.212 The three maceral groups 87
2.212.1 The vitrinite group 91
2.212.11 Description of the macerals 91
2.212.111 Telinite 91
2.212.112 Collinite 93
2.212.113 Corpocollinite 96
2.212.114 Vitrodetrinite 96
2.212.12 Physical properties of vitrinite 96
2.212.121 Fracture, lustre and fissuring 96
2.212.122 Density of vitrinite 97
2.212.123 Refractive index and absorption index of vitrinite 97
2.212.124 Reflectance of vitrinite 98
2.212.125 Microhardness of vitrinite 99
2.212.126 Porosity, ultrafine structure and X-ray structure of vitrinite 99
2.212.13 The chemical properties of vitrinite 99
2.212.2 The macerals of the exinite group 100
2.212.21 Sporinite 101
2.212.211 General remarks and morphology of fossil spores 101
2.212.212 Tenuispores and crassispores 103
2.212.213 Sporinite and micrinite 105
2.212.214 Occurrence of sporinite and its stratigraphic significance 105
2.212.215 Physical properties of sporinite 105
2.212.216 Chemical properties of sporinite 106
2.212.22 Cutinite 107
2.212.221 Origin 107
2.212.222 Morphology of cutinite in polished surfaces and macerated
preparations 108
2.212.223 Occurrence and stratigraphic significance of cutinite 111
2.212.224 Cuticular analysis 113
2.212.225 Physical properties of cutinite 114
2.212.226 Chemical properties of cutinite 114
2.212.23 Resinite 115
2.212.231 General remarks 115
2.212.232 Morphography of resinite in polished surfaces and in thin
sections 116
2.212.233 Occurrence and stratigraphic significance of resinite 116
2.212.234 Physical properties of resinite 118
2.212.235 Chemical properties of resinite 119
2.212.24 Alginite 120
2.212.241 General remarks 120
2.212.242 Morphography of Pila and Reinschia alginite 121
2.212.243 Occurrence of alginite 124
2.212.244 Physical and chemical properties of alginite 124
2.212.25 Liptodetrinite 125
2.212.26 Coalification of the exinite macerals 125
2.212.3 The macerals of the inertinite group 127
2.212.31 Fusinite 127
2.212.311 Description of fusinite 127
2.212.312 Occurrence of fusinite 129
2.212.313 Physical and chemical properties of fusinite 129
2.212.32 Semifusinite 130
2.212.321 Description of semifusinite 130
2.212.322 Occurrence of semifusinite 130
2.212.323 Physical and chemical properties of semifusinite 132
2.212.33 Macrinite 132
2.212.331 Description of macrinite 132
2.212.332 Occurrence of macrinite 132
2.212.333 Physical and chemical properties of macrinite 132
2.212.34 Inertodetrinite 133
2.212.341 Description of inertodetrinite 133
2.212.342 Occurrence of inertodetrinite 133
2.212.343 Physical and chemical properties of inertodetrinite 133
2.212.35 Micrinite 135
2.212.351 Description of micrinite 135
2.212.352 Occurrence of micrinite 135
2.212.353 Physical and chemical properties of micrinite 135
2.212.36 Sclerotinite 135
2.212.361 Sclerotinite in Tertiary coals 135
2.212.362 Sclerotinite in Carboniferous coals 136
2.212.363 Occurrence of sclerotinite 138
2.212.364 Physical properties of sclerotinite 138
2.22 The microlithotypes of coal and their strength by E. STACH (translation:
F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 140
2.221 The concept of microlithotypes 140
2.221.1 The monomaceral microlithotypes 143
2.221.11 Vitrite 143
2.221.12 Liptite 144
2.221.13 Inertite 144
2.221.2 The bimaceral microlithotypes 145
2.221.21 Clarite 145
2.221.22 Vitrinertite 147

2.221.23 Durite 148
2.221.3 Trimacerite 148
2.222 The physical and chemical properties of microlithotypes 149
2.223 Carbominerites 150
2.23 Minerals and trace elements occurring in coal by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY
(translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 153
2.231 Clay minerals 158
2.232 Carbonate minerals 164
2.233 Sulphides 165
2.234 Oxides and hydroxides 168
2.235 Phosphates 169
2.236 Heavy minerals 169
2.237 Salts 170
2.238 Trace elements 170
2.24 The lithotypes of humic and sapropelic coals by E. STACH
(translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 171
2.241 The lithotypes of humic coals 171
2.241.1 Vitrain (bright coal) 172
2.241.2 Clarain 172
2.241.3 Durain (dull coal) 172
2.241.4 Fusain 172
2.242 Sapropelic coals 173
2.242.1 Cannel coals 173
2.242.2 Transitions from cannel to boghead coals 175
2.242.3 Boghead coals 175
2.243 Carbonaceous shale, cannel and boghead shale 177
2.25 Gondwana coals by D. CHANDRA and G. H. TAYLOR 177
2.251 Introduction 177
2.252 Conditions of deposition 178

2.253 Macroscopic seam characteristics 180
2.254 Microscopic petrography 181
2.254.1 Macerals 181
2.254.11 Exinite group 182
2.254.111 Alginite 182
2.254.112 Sporinite 183
2.254.113 Resinite 183
2.254.114 Cutinite 185
2.254.12 Vitrinite group 185
2.254.13 Inertinite group 187
2.254.131 Micrinite 187
2.254.132 Macrinite 187
2.254.133 Inertodetrinite 189
2.254.134 Sclerotinite 189
2.254.135 Semifusinite 190
2.254.136 Fusinite 190
2.254.2 Microlithotypes 191
2.254.3 Mineral matter 191
2.254.31 Clay minerals 193
2.254.32 Carbonate minerals 193
2.254.33 Sulphide minerals 193
2.254.34 Silica minerals 194
2.254.35 Other minerals; mineral associations 194
2.255 Rank: Thermal and tectonic alteration 195
2.256 Use and assessment 197
2.26 Oxidized coals by D. CHANDRA 198
2.261 Microstructure and reflectance 199
2.261.1 Oxidation at lower temperature (up to   150°C) 199
2.261.2 Oxidation at higher temperature (greater than   150°C) 202
2.261.3 Oxidation rims 203
2.27 Thermally altered coals by D. CHANDRA and G. H. TAYLOR 206
2.271 Introduction 206
2.272 Microstructure 207
2.272.1 Groundmass 207
2.272.2 Original constituents 209
2.272.3 Newly-formed constituents 209
2.273 Reflectance 213
2.273.1 Relation between reflectance and chemical composition 213
2.273.2 Effect of pressure on thermally affected coals 214
2.273.3 Evaluation of temperature of alteration of affected coals 215
3. Origin of the petrographic constituents of coal by M. TEICHMÜLLER
(translation: D. G. MURCHISON) 219
3.1 Introduction and methods of investigation 219
3.2 Origin of macerals 223
3.21 General 223
3.22 The vitrinite group 225
3.221 Chemical and botanical precursors 225
3.222 Alteration during the peat and brown-coal stages 227
3.223 Individual macerals 231
3.223.1 Telinite, telocollinite 231
3.223.2 Desmocollinite, vitrodetrinite, degradinite 235
3.223.3 Gelocollinite 237
3.223.4 Corpocollinite 239
3.224 Alteration of vitrinite in the bituminous coal and anthracite stages 242
3.23 The liptinite (exinite) group 245
3.231 Chemical and botanical precursors 245
3.232 Alteration during peatification and coalification 245
3.233 Individual macerals 247
3.233.1 Sporinite 247
3.233.2 Cutinite 251
3.233.3 Resinite 252
3.233.31 Terpene resinite 253
3.233.32 Lipid resinite 258
3.233.33 Secondary ''resinite'' (exsudatinite) 259
3.233.4 Alginite 263
3.233.5 Suberinite 268
3.233.6 Liptodetrinite 269
3.233.7 Bituminite 269
3.24 The inertinite group 271
3.241 Chemical and botanical precursors 271
3.242 Alteration during peatification and coalification 272
3.243 Individual macerals 272
3.243.1 Fusinite and semifusinite 272
3.243.11 Pyrofusinite 272
3.243.12 Degradofusinite (oxyfusinite) 274
3.243.13 Rank fusinite 275
3.243.14 Primary fusinite 277
3.243.2 Sclerotinite 279
3.243.3 Macrinite 281
3.243.4 Inertodetrinite 283
3.243.5 Micrinite 283
3.3 Origin of microlithotypes 285
3.31 Vitrite 286
3.32 Clarite 286
3.33 Durite 288
3.34 Trimacerite 289
3.35 Vitrinertite 289
3.36 Fusite, semifusite 290
3.37 Rare microlithotypes 290
3.4 Origin of sapropelic coals (canners and bogheads) 291
3.5 Origin of liptobioliths 294
4. Methods and tools of examination 295
4.1 Sampling and preparation of polished surfaces or thin sections
by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY (translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 295
4.11 Sampling 295
4.12 Preparation of polished surfaces 296
4.13 Preparation of polished surfaces from particulate samples 296
4.131 Preparation of specimens without pressure 297
4.132 Preparation of specimens under pressure 298
4.133 Grinding 298
4.134 Polishing 299
4.14 Preparation of thin sections of coal 299
4.2 Methods of examination of coal 300
4.21 Macropetrographic seam section and microscopic seam section analysis by
M.-Th. MACKOWSKY (translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 300
4.211 Macropetrographic seam section 300
4.211.1 Survey of the gross structure of the seams 300
4.211.2 Macropetrographic description of the seam 300
4.212 Microscopic analysis of seam profiles 305
4.212.1 Sampling and preparation of polished sections 305
4.212.11 Pillar samples 305
4.212.12 Drill cores 305
4.212.13 Preparation of polished surfaces 306
4.212.14 Performance of the analysis 306
4.22 Maceral analysis on polished surfaces of particulate coal samples
by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY (translation: F. Zierke and G. H. TAYLOR) 308

4.221 General remarks 308
4.222 Instruments 309
4.223 Procedure and evaluation 309
4.224 Evaluation of the results and accuracy of analysis 311
4.23 Microlithotype analysis on particulate coal samples by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY
(translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 312
4.231 General remarks 312
4.232 Instruments 312
4.233 Procedure for the analysis 313
4.233.1 Microlithotype analysis 313
4.233.11 Grouping of microlithotypes 313

4.233.12 Procedure 314
4.233.13 Evaluation and presentation of results 315
4.233.14 Accuracy of analysis 315
4.233.2 Combined maceral-microlithotype analysis 315
4.233.21 Procedure of analysis 315
4.233.22 Accuracy of analysis 319
4.24 Rank determination by measurement of reflectance on vitrinites by M.-Th.
MACKOWSKY (translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 319
4.241 General remarks 319
4.242 Equipment for reflectance measurements 326
4.243 Measuring procedure 326
4.244 Evaluation and presentation of the results 327
4.245 Accuracy of the measurement 328
4.246 Reflectance measurements on other macerals or maceral groups 329
4.25 Determination of the rank of coals contained in a blend by
reflectance measurements on vitrinite by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY
(translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 329
4.251 General remarks 329

4.252 Equipment and checking of the measuring system 330
4.253 Procedure 330
4.254 Evaluation and expression of the results 331
4.255 Mean error of the as-determined proportions 332
4.26 Mineral distribution analysis by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY (translation: F. ZIERKE
and G. H. TAYLOR) 332
4.261 General remarks 332
4.262 Instruments 333
4.263 Distribution of the total mineral content 334
4.264 Distribution of individual minerals 335
4.265 Distribution of different types of association 336
4.27 Etching of polished coal surfaces by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY
(translation: F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 337
4.271 General remarks 337
4.272 Procedure 337
4.28 Determination of hardness and strength by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY (translation:
F. ZIERKE and G. H. TAYLOR) 341
4.281 Hardness testing 341
4.281.1 General remarks 341
4.281.2 Method of measurement 341
4.282 Mechanical strength 345
4.282.1 General remarks 345
4.282.2 Testing methods 346
4.282.21 Vickers'' macrostrength 346
4.282.22 Compressive strength 346
4.282.23 Grindability and structural strength 346
4.282.24 Vibro-impact strength (after SPÄTH) 348
4.29 Fluorescence microscopy by E. STACH (translation: F. ZIERKE and
G. H. TAYLOR) 348
4.291 General remarks 348
4.292 The modern fluorescent-light microscope 349
4.293 Practical aspects 350
4.294 Quantitative determination of intensity and spectrometry 351
4.295 Phocography in fluorescent light 352
4.296 Supplement to Ch. 4.29 354
4.3 Coke microscopy by M.-Th. MACKOWSKY Translation: F. ZIERKE and
G. H. TAYLOR) 356
4.31 General remarks 356
4.32 Examination of Rose specimens 357
4.33 Quantitative determination of the coke structure after E. HOFFMANN 357
4.34 Determination of the optical character of coke 360
4.4 Rank determination on sedimentary rows other than coal by M. TEICHMÜLLER
(transalation: D. G. MUCHRISON) 362
4.41 Selection of samples 362
4.42 Concentration of coaly inclusions 363
4.43 Section preparation 364
4.44 Reflectivity measurement 365
4.45 Spectral fluorescence measurement 371
5. Applied coal petrology 375
5.1 Seam identification by E. STACH (translation: P. ZIERKE and
G. H. TAYLOR) 375
5.11 Methods of seam identification 375
5.12 Seam identification using petrological methods 375
5.121 Marker seams 375
5.122 Macroscopic seam sections and seam formation curves 376
5.123 Microscopic seam identification -- dull layers 378
5.124 Crassidurite seams 379
5.125 Maceral analysis 379
5.13 Seam identification using sporology 379
5.131 Spore analysis 379
5.132 Spore frequency diagrams 380
5.14 Seam identification using determination of rank 380
5.15 Seams showing particular petrographic features 380
5.2 Application of coal petrological methods in geology including oil
and natural gas prospecting by M. TEICHMÜLLER (translation:
D. G. MURCHISON) 381
5.21 The importance of coal petrology in the solution of
stratigraphic, palaeogeographic and tectonic problems 382
5.22 Application of coal petrology in the solution of geothermal problems 393
5.23 Coal petrology and ore prospecting 399
5.24 The importance of coal petrology in prospecting for oil and
natural gas 399
5.25 Further possible applications of coal petrological methods 413
5.3 The application of coal petrography in technical processes by
M.-Th. MACKOWSKY (translation: F. ZIERKE ant G. H. TAYLOR) 413
5.3.1 General remarks 413
5.32 Coal getting 414
5.33 Coal preparation 415
5.331 General remarks 415
5.332 Cleaning 418
5.332.1 Possibilities to reduce the sulphur content 419
5.332.2 Possibilities to concentrate pyrite 420
5.332.3 Determination of ''misplaced'' material 421
5.332.4 The electrostatic cleaning processes 421

5.34 Carbonization 423
5.341 Properties of coking coal 424
5.342 Transition from coal to coke 439
5.343 Influence of grain size distribution 445
5.344 Prediction of coke properties 446
5.344.1 The method of BROWN, TAYLOR & COOK 448
5.344.2 The method of AMMOSOV et al. and SCHAPIRO et al. 48
5.344.3 The method of SIMONIS & MACKOWSKY 451
5.35 Formed coke and hot briquetting - Smokeless fuels 455
5.36 Briquetting (using pitch as a binder) 462
5.37 Combustion of coal 467
5.38 Spontaneous combustion of coal 474
5.4 Liquefaction (Hydrogenation) 476
References (second edition) 482
References (third edition) 501
Abbreviations 511
Author Index 512
.
Subject Index 518