cover

Jean Meyer:

Plant galls and gall inducers

Translated by: Suellen Cheskin

1987. 1. edition, VIII, 291 pages, 271 figures, 17x24cm, 900 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-443-01023-2, bound, price: 76.00 €

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Keywords

gallplantinducerfruitGallePflanzeAuslöserFrucht

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

The aim of this book is to place at the disposal of the interested public (students of the natural sciences, biologists, agronomists, entomologists, etc.) an elementary but richly illustrated survey concisely describing the most common and biologically interesting galls. They are generally presented together with their causative agent, following the systematic classification of the parasites. In certain cases, the morphological presentation has been rounded out with biological details or even a brief anatomical and cecidogenetic study, manifesting the parasite's mode of action and the plant's coadaptive reaction.

This book is not a catalogue, such as those of Houard (1908-1940) for the different continents, of Buhr (1964-1965) for central and northern Europe, or of Felt (1940) for North America. It is rather a systematic and biological account, more reminiscent of but having a more reduced and modern format than the not specifically cecidological work of Sorauer (Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 1925-1931) and, from a cecidological perspective, the works of Küster (Die Gallen der Pflanzen, 1911) and Ross (Praktikum der Gallenkunde, 1932). Moreover, since the last treatise on cecidology, that of Mani (Ecology of Plant Galls, 1964), appeared over twenty years ago, a review incorporating more recent findings has become necessary. Although this book is more up to date, it cannot claim to be complete, all the more so because we have intentionally given it the form and content of a survey. For further knowledge, the reader will benefit by referring to the above-mentioned works. Concerning the anatomy and cecidogenesis, i.e., development, of galls, it would be advantageous to consult Küster (Anatomie der Gallen, 1930) and especially the quite recent treatise entitled Anatomie des galles by Meyer & Maresquelle (1983).

Table of Contents top ↑

Preface III
A.Introduction 1
1.Concept of "gall" or "cecidium" 1
2.Classification of galls according to Küster (1911) 2
B.Cecidogenous parasites and their modes of action 5
1.Viruses 5
2.Cecidophyta 9
2.1 Bacteria 9
1.11 Mycoplasmas 9
1.12 The bacteria proper 10
2.2 Algae 19
2.3 Fungi 19
2.31 General comments 19
2.32 Archimycetes 20
Family Olpidiaceae 20
Family Synchytriaceae 21
Family Rhizidiaceae 25
Family Plasmodiophoraceae 25
Family Olpidiopsidaceae 26
2.33 Phycomycetes 26
Family Cladochytriaceae 28
Family Peronosporaceae 29
2.34 Septomycetes 32
Class Ascomycetes 32
Subclass Protoascomycetes 32
Family Protomycetaceae 32
Family Exoascaceae 32
Subclass Euascomycetes 33
Class Basidiomycetes 38
Order Uredinales (rusts) 38
Hypertrophying effects 38
Hypertrophy by the aecial stage 41
Hypertrophy by the uredial stage 41
Hypertrophy by the telial stage 41
Organoid effects 43
Order Ustilaginales (smuts) 44
Family Ustilaginaceae 44
Family Tilletiaceae 48
Order Exobasidiales .... 51
Family Exobasidiaceae 51
2.4 Generalizations on the structure of phytocecidia 51
3. Cecidozoa 51
3.1 Systematic position of cecidozoa 51
3.2 Cecidogenous "worms" 52
3.21 Cecidogenous nematodes 52
Literature review 52
General biology 53
Modes of action . 57
Hypertrophy with giant nutritive cells 57
Nutritive metaplasia without hypertrophy 58
Hyperplasia 58
Hyperplasia with growth inhibition at the radicle tip 58
Hyperplasia with formation of spongy parenchyma 60
Recent progress in nematology 60
3.3 Cecidogenous arthropods 60
3.31 Cecidogenous Acari 60
Family Tarsonemidae 60
Family Eriophyidae 61
Literature review 61
Morphology and biology of eriophyids 63
Eriophyid galls 63
Literature 63
Morphology and anatomy of eriophyid galls 65
Organoid galls 66
Histioid galls 67
Economic importance 72
3.32 Cecidogenous insects 77
3.321 CecidogenousThysanoptera 77
General characters and literature 77
Cecidogenetic effects 77
3.322 Cecidogenous Hemiptera 82
General comments 82
Morphology of Hemiptera 82
Stylet tracks 83
Systematic distribution 85
Heteroptera 85
Homoptera 87
Geographical distribution 88
Development and cecidogenous stages 88
Gall morphology and morphogenesis 88
Order Heteroptera: Family Tingidae 90
Order Homoptera 91
Superfamily Cercopoidea 94
Superfamily Membracoidea 94
Superfamily Psylloidea 94
Superfamily Aphidoidea 98
Family Aphididae 102
Family Thelaxidae 107
Family Eriosomatidae 107
Subfamily Pemphiginae 109
Subfamily Eriosomatinae 109
Subfamily Fordinae 112
Family Adelgidae (= Chermesidae) 115
General characters and life cycles 115
Cecidogenesis 120
Dehiscence of the galls 121
Family Phylloxeridae 122
Superfamily Coccoidea (coccids or scale insects) 127
General characters of cecidogenous coccids 127
Galls of scale insects 130
Galls of Diaspididae and Asterolecaniidae 130
Galls of Eriococcidae 130
Galls of Brachyscelidae 135
3.323 Cecidogenous Hymenoptera 141
General characters and classification 141
Symphyta 141
Apocrita 142
Cecidogenous Tenthredinoidea : Subfamily Nematinae 142
Literature 142
Cecidogenesis and gall morphology 144
Family Cynipidae (cynipids or gall wasps) 147
General comments 147
Taxonomic literature and classification 147
Biology of cynipids; morphogenesis and structure of their galls 155
Life cycles 155
The mode of action of cynipids and cecidogenesis of their galls 160 Amplitude of intrageneric morphological variations among
cynipid galls 163
A common morphological convergence: pedunculation 166
Differentiation of emergences 167
Acorn galls and cryptocecidia 167
Structural convergence and adaptive divergence 169
Structural convergence 170
Adaptation of Neuroterus galls to the alternation of
generations 170
Abscission phenomena 176
Organoid galls 177
Effect of inquilines and parasites on cynipid galls 177
Ecology of cynipid galls 179
Cecidogenous Chalcidoidea 179
Cecidogenous Eurytomidae and their galls 179
Agaonidae 187
3.324 Cecidogenous Coleoptera 189
General comments 189
Family Cerambycidae 190
Family Scolytidae 190
Family Buprestidae 190
Family Curculionidae 191
3.325 Cecidogenous Lepidoptera 198
Low number of cecidogenous species in this order 198
Biological particulars on cecidogenous Lepidoptera 200
Morphology and anatomy of lepidopterocecidia 205
3.326 Cecidogenous Diptera 207
Cecidogenous Cecidomyiidae (gall midges or gall gnats) 208
Literature and classification 208
Biological characteristics 208
Mouthparts 208
The sternal spatula 209
Life cycles 209
Cecidogenesis and differentiation of cecidomyiid galls 217
Oviposition techniques 217
External oviposition and nidification process of the larva . . 218
Internal oviposition : intervention of a terebra 224
Amplitude of morphological and structural variations 229
Mechanisms of abscission and dehiscence in cecidomyiid galls 232
Organoid galls of cecidomyiids 234
Cecidomyiid galls with mycelial nutritive tissue 235
Host specificity 237
Gall polymorphism 238
The case of Dasineura urticae: adaptation of cecidogenetic
processes to the substrate 238
Sexual dimorphism 244
To summarize - 244
Cecidogenous cyclorrhaphous Diptera 244
Classification and general characters 244
Galls of cyclorrhaphous Diptera 245
C. General considerations 253
1.Distribution of galls in the world 253
2.The gall as a host response which is beneficial to the parasite 253
3.Conclusion 254
References 256
Parasite Index 274
Host Index 280
Glossary 284
Author Index 287