Dieter Henning:

Atlas of the Surface Heat Balance of the Continents

With components and parameters estimated from climatological data

1989. VI, 402 pages, 15 tables, 327 maps, 19x28cm, 1300 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-443-01025-6, bound, price: 91.00 €

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Synopsis top ↑

This handy atlas presents detailed analyses of mean annual, semi-annual, seasonal and monthly values of the following fluxes and parameters derived from the long term monthly averages of routine meteorological data: net all-wave radiation, net long-wave radiation, actual evapotranspiration, the flux of sensible heat, the parameterized surface albedo, total cloudiness, the modified Bowen-ratio (the ratio of the heat needed for actual evotranspiration to the total energy available), the radiational index of dryness (Budykoratio) and total runoff. In 26 maps, the months - i. e. their regional variability - are shown in which net radiation, actual evotranspiration, the flux of sensible heat and the modified Bowen-ratio are at their maximum.

The last set of maps is methodological in character: these maps are devoted to the differences in quantity estimates resulting from the use of different methods. The data of about 4000 meteorological stations were subjected to treatment by three semi-empirical methods, namely those of F. Albrecht, M.I. Budyko and H.L. Penman. Albrecht was a German heat-balance climatologist of some originality who died in 1965. All maps showing "plain" results are based on Albrecht's procedure.

A discussion of all three methods with their respective modifications is given in some detail in the leading section of the text before the maps. The middle section is devoted to explaining the main features of the maps. Finally, the area averages derived from the station-by-station results are presented in tables in the last section.

Area-averaging was done by five-degree latitude belts as well as by continents. Accordingly, area means are specified for various combinations of continents and latitude belts. Also, a month-by-month global heat balance is given derived from the results of the present investigation and from estimates for the oceans carried out by Albrecht in the early 1060s.

Of interest to all geophysicists, meteorologists, geographers, ecologists, their institutes and organizations, scientific libraries.