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Organic Petrology

A new handbook incorporating some revised parts of Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology

Ed.: G.H. Taylor; M. Teichmüller; A. Davis; C.F.K. Diessel; R. Littke; P. Robert

1998. XVI, 704 pages, 349 figures, 70 tables, 18x25cm, 1770 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-443-01036-2, bound, price: 99.00 €

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Keywords

organic mattercoalpeatpeatificationbitumencoalificationvitrinitevitrinite reflectioncokemacerals

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

''Organic Petrology'' is a new book, but one with antecedents. It is rooted in the famous ``Stach''s Textbook of Coal Petrology'''' (1975) and its predecessor ``Stach''s Lehrbuch der Kohlenpetrologie'''' (1935) but has been completely revised and expanded in order to incorporate a huge amount of new data obtained in the two decades since the publication of the 3rd edition of Stach. ''Organic Petrology'' now covers the whole field of the petrology of organic material in rocks.
This book, wich is relevant for all those, whose work is related to coal, oil and gas source rocks, and other organic matter which occurs in rocks, deals with: characterization, microstructure; geology and biology of formation of organic matter; maturation and increase in coal rank and the generation of hydrocarbons which takes place concurrently; experimental organic petrology; physical and chemical properties of organic compounds in rocks; industrial processing of coal and the application of organic petrology in solving geological problems (such as determining rates of subsidence, thermal histories).
Sections which introduce major topics are organized so as to allow easy access to the topic, even for the non-specialist. No field of science can avoid the use of technical terms -- these are explained when they are used for the first time.
The text is supplemented by an exhaustive reference list and a subject index. Information on the worldwide stratigraphic distribution of coal deposits and organic matter-bearing rocks, is included in an appendix.
''Organic Petrology'' was authored by a team of six high ranking authors, coordinated by G.H. Taylor, ANU, Canberra. The number of authors refects the breadth of organic petrology that this book covers. Some material, revised and updated, was incorporated from the classic ''''Stach''s Textbook of Coal Petrology'''' which this new book supplants by providing a greatly broadened view of organic matter in rocks and drawing on up to date research results and recent publications. Five colleagues of the authors made contributions to bring some specialty sections up to the state of the art.
The book addresses researchers, undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, people concerned with the assessment, mining and use of coal and oil shales, and exploration workers interested in the occurrence and the evaluation of petroleum and natural gas and their source rocks.

Book Review, ICCP News, no. 19, April 1999 top ↑

Review by Jack D. Burgess, Humble Geochemical Services, Humble, Texas.
This volume of nine chapters covers the subject of organic petrology and were written by six major and five contributing authors. Chapters are of varying length with the Introduction and historical survey consisting of 5 pages and the longest chapter on Methods with 112 pages. The chapter headings include: Introduction and Historical Survey, The Origin of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks, Coalification and Maturation, The Nature of Organic Matter - Macerals and Associated Minerals, Lithotypes and Microlithotypes, Some Important Coals and Other Carbonaceous Rocks of the World, Methods and Procedures, Geologic Applications, and Technological Applications. Each chapter contains a short introduction and then greater details as individual topics are developed. The table of contents along with an extensive subject index following the references makes for easy access to a specific topic. This book is unique in functioning both as a handbook of techniques in coal and organic petrology as well as a complete reference guide.
The Introdoction and Historical Survey brings together into a few pages the important work of individuals, amd the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) in establishing coal petrology as a descriptive science. The historic trends of the Stopes- Heerlen terminology usage are well covered and makes clear the debt owed these many early coal scientists.
Chapter 2 on The Origin of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks was written by M. Teichmüller, R. Littke, and G.H. Taylor. The chapter is entitled Deposition and preservation of organic matter in sedimentary rocks other than coal, and covers such diverse topics as climate paleogeography and environments of deposition, types of deposition, peat forming communities, accumulation rates of organic matter-rich sediments other than coal, and migrabitumen in rocks. In the section on deep marine environment the authors develop a triangular diagram depicting maceral associations in small oceanic basins and along passive continental margins, and which is also used as a logo on the book cover.
Chapter 3, 4, and 5 cover Coalification and Maturation, The nature of organic matter - maceral and Associated Minerals, and Lithotypes and Microlithotypes. The subjects are well covered in these chapters with many new diagrams and cross-sections, and some that have been seen before. Also noted are sections dealing with organic matter-rich sediments other than coal, the calibration of vitrinite reflectance in basin modelling, and macerals in oil shales and other petroleum source rocks. The recognition and application of coal petrology to rocks other than ccal is a most welcome trend, and the authors are to be commended for this emphasis.
Chapter 6: Some important Coals and Other Carbonaceous Rocks of the World was written by G.H. Taylor and collects a great amount of material on organic-rich rocks and coals worldwide. Reading this chapter and referring to the colored stratigraphic columus in Appendix 1, graphically showing occurrences of carbonaceous rocks from the Phanerozoic to the Pliocene and reveals the ubiquity of carbonaceous rocks through time. A conclusion by the author shows that carbonaceous rocks were deposited in every geologic age and have been exposod to a variety of post depositional conditions, yet there is no consistent correlation between age and rank. Some carbonaceous rocks of Precambrian age, have never been exposod to temperature > 100°C, while some Tertiary coals are of biturninous or even anthracite rank.
Chapter 7 covers Methods and Procedures and is the longest segment of the book with 112 pages. It was written by A. Davis, D.C. Glick, M. Vanderbroucke, and J. Espitalié. This chapter starts with Sampling methods and preparation procedures and leads to a Description of coals, and oil shales, with preparatory techniques for coal, strew mounts and well cuttings. Reflectance analysis is described along with recording and reporting of data. Automated image analysis is discussed, described, and compared with manual methods. Complimentary geochemical methods to augment organic petrography are covered along with interpreted gas chromatograms of kerogen types I, II, and III. Etching and staining hardness, microstructure in coals and chars are covered in detail.
Chapter 8 covers Geological applications and was written by M. Teichmüller, P. Robert, R. Littke, and M. Smyth. This chapter is divided into 7 sub-headings including Methodology of Organic Petrology Applied to Solving Geologic Problems; Diagenesis Through Metamorphisms and its Relationship to Concurrent Rock Interactions; Uses of Organic Petrology in Crustal Distensions and Convergence Systems Exploration for Hydrocarbons, Source Rocks, Maturity, Limits of Maturity for Oil and Gas Occurrences, Coal as a Source and Reservoir Rock, and Four Basin Studies Utilizing Organic Petrology; Ore and Mineral/Organic Matter Interactions; and finally Applications in Soil Science, Archaelogy, and Effluent Studies. This chapter will be the one most referred to by those exploring for oil and gas.
The final chapter, Chapter 9 in the book, was written by C.F.K. Diessel with assistance from M. Smyth. The chapter is divided into seven major-sub-headings: Coal Exploration and Preparation, Coal Carbonization and Petrology of Coke, Coal Combustion, Coal Gasification, and Liquefaction, and Coals for Other Industrial Purposes. The authors set the stage for the subjects in their introdoction, "the emphasis of the discussion is on the important role the microscope has played in developing an understanding of the function of coal and its components as a chemical feed stock and provider of energy." For one who is not well versed in this field as I am not, the authors do a first-rate job of leading one throngh these technical subjects in a logical and comprehensive way, and at the end of the chapter you feel a good grasp of the subject matter, and a ready reference to their technology. This book is a must have for all practicing coal and organic petrologists, and should be an available reference for all organic geochemists.
ICCP News, April 1999, no. 19

Rev.: AMF ALERT 2 (3) 2000 top ↑

This is an authoritative and comprehensive handbook of coal petrology, with additional information on petroleum. It is a new compilation but acknowledges some of its inspiration from successive editions of the International Handbook of Coal Petrography and the pioneering work in Stach's Textbook of Coal Petrology, starting from 1935 (Lehrbuch der Kohlenpetrographie). Topics include: petroleum source rocks and other rocks with organic matter; metallurgical coke; methodology; microstructure; petrogenesis; maturation; experimental organic petrology; industrial processing of coal; and applications to some broader geological problems. Illustration is generous and includes numerous photographs, some in colour. A handy appendix features coloured stratigraphic columns showing the age distribution of some rocks mentioned in the text. The authors are of international repute and have commendably aimed to make the book readable by the non-specialist: Taylor is from the Australian National University and Diessel from the University of Newcastle, Australia.

There is a short but interesting historical introduction which includes photographs of eight of the earlier workers such as Thiessen, Marie Stopes (also pioneering birth control), Potonie and Marshall. In describing the subsequent chapters in decreasing order of length, Methodology (Chapter seven) takes first place, starting with coal sampling and including the preparation of polished blocks, measuring reflectance, video image analysis, fluorescence microscopy, etching and staining techniques, and the microscopy of chars and flyash. Almost as long is the chapter on Macerals and Associated Minerals (Chapter four) which define the heterogeneous nature of coal and other organic matter at various levels of magnification. The groups described are vitrinite, liptinite, inertinite, macerals of oil shales, inorganic matter such as quartz and sulphides, and trace elements. A long final chapter (Chapter nine) covers technological applications of organic petrology to coal exploration, preparation, carbonisation, combustion, gasification and liquefaction.

Reverting to shorter, but important chapters, in order of appearance: Chapter two is on the origin of organic matter in sedimentary rocks, mentioning the origin of mines, coal facies, Beatification, and depositional environments of oil and gas source rocks; Chapter three covers coalification and maturation; Chapter five is on lithotypes such as vitrain in humic coals, with description of sapropelic coals and carbonaceous elastic rocks; Chapter six usefully covers important coals and carbonaceous rocks of the world, including Carboniferous, Permian, Mesozoic, Tertiary and Quaternary coals; while Chapter eight covers geological applications of organic petrology such as rank determination in sedimentary rocks, study of diagenesis and metamorphism, ore genesis, petroleum exploration, and archaeology. Kimmeridge sapropelite "coal" from Dorset was widely used as early as the Bronze Age to make objects such as amulets and bowls.

Reviewed by the Australian Mineral Foundation in AMF ALERT 2 (3) 2000

Contents top ↑

1. Introduction and historical survey 1
2. The origin of organic matter in sedimentary rocks 6
2.1 Organic productivity and the preservation of organic matter 6
2.2 Preservation of organic matter as peat and coal 6
2.21 Origin of mires 7
2.211 Evolutionary development of the flora 7
2.212 Climate 10
2.213 Paleogeographic and tectonic factors 11
2.213.1 Paleogeography and environments of deposition 12
2.213.2 Tectonics 23
2.22 Peat growth, compression and the time needed for a seam to form 25
2.23 Development of coal facies 26
2.231 Type of deposition (autochthonous, allochthonous) 27
2.232 Peat-forming plant communities 28
2.233 Depositional environments (telmatic, limnic, brackish-marine,
calcium-rich) 34
2.234 Nutrient supply (eutrophic, oligotrophic) 36
2.235 Acidity, bacterial activity, sulfur 37
2.236 Temperature 40
2.237 Redox potential 40
2.24 Beatification 42
2.241 Conditions of beatification 42
2.242 Chemical and microbial processes of beatification 43
2.243 Peatification under the microscope 44
2.244 Common parameters of Beatification 47
2.3 Deposition and preservation of organic matter in sedimentary rocks
other than coal 48
2.31 Depositional environments of oil and gas source rocks 48
2.311 Overview 48
2.312 Deep marine environments 50
2.313 Shallow marine environments 59
2.314 Lakes 65
2.315 Fluviodeltaic coal-bearing strata 69
2.32 Early alteration and diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter other than
coal 73
2.321 Alteration of organic matter in the water column 73
2.322 Alteration of organic matter during early diagenesis 75
2.33 Accumulation rates of organic matter-rich sediments other than coal 80
2.34 Migrabitumen in rocks 82
3. Coalification and maturation 86
3. l Geological causes of coalification and maturation 87
3.11 The effect of temperature 87
3.12 The effect of time 91
3.13 The effect of pressure 93
3.2 Coalification and maturation processes 99
3.21 Coalification processes 99
3.211 Chemical and physical changes 99
3.212 Petrographic changes 116
3.22 Maturation processes 126
3.221 Chemical changes 128
3.222 Petrographic changes 132
3.3 Kinetics of coalification and maturation 140
3.31 Present-day geothermics, their representation and occurrence 140
3.32 The kinetics of the thermal transformation of organic matter 143
3.33 Applications of the theoretical simulation 145
3.34 The calibration of vitrinite reflectance in basin modelling 149
3.4 Parameters of rank and maturity 155
3.41 Parameters of rank 156
3.42 Parameters of maturity 159
3.5 Thermal alteration and the formation of natural coke 162
3.51 Introduction 162
3.511 Coal 163
3.512 Other rocks 164
3.52 Microstructure 164
3.521 Groundmass 165
3.522 Original organic constituents 165
3.523 Newly-formed organic constituents 169
3.524 Mineralogical changes 169
3.53 Reflectance 170
3.531 Relation between reflectance and chemical composition 170
3.532 Effect of pressure 171
3.533 Evaluation of temperature of alteration 172
3.54 Heat alteration of oxidized organic matter 172
4. The nature of organic matter - macerals and associated minerals 175
4.1 Introduction 175
4.2 Nature of petrographic constituents 175
4.21 The maceral concept 175
4.22 Maceral groups 176
4.23 The influence of rank on the properties of macerals 178
4.3 Macerals of the huminite/vitrinite group 180
4.31 Chemical and botanical precursors 181
4.32 Changes during Beatification and coalification 190
4.33 Individual macerate 194
4.331 Telinite, telocollinite 194
4.332 Desmocollinite, vitrodetrinite, degradinite 196
4.333 Gelocollinite 197
4.334 Corpocollinite 198
4.335 Pseudovitrinite 199
4.4 Macerals of the liptinite group 201
4.41 Chemical and botanical precursors 201
4.42 Changes during Beatification and coalification 201
4.43 Individual macerals 203
4.431 Sporinite 203
4.432 Cutinite 207
4.433 Resinite 209
4.433.1 Terpene resinite 209
4.433.2 'Resinite' derived from lipids 211
4.434 Fluorinite 212
4.435 Alginite 214
4.436 Suberinite 217
4.437 Liptodetrinite 217
4.438 Bituminite 220
4.439 Chlorophyllinite 223
4.4310 Exsudatinite 223
4.5 Macerals of the inertinite group 226
4.51 Chemical and botanical precursors 226
4.52 Changes during Beatification and coalification 227
4.53 Individual macerals 227
4.531 Fusinite and semifusinite 227
4.531.1 Pyrofusinite 229
4.531.2 Degradofusinite (oxyfusinite) 229
4.531.3 Rank fusinite 233
4.531.4 Primary fusinite 233
4.532 Sclerotinite 234
4.533 Macrinite 236
4.534 Inertodetrinite 237
4.535 Micrinite 238
4.6 Macerals in oil shales and other petroleum source rocks 238
4.61 Lithological and geochemical features of petroleum source rocks 241
4.62 Characteristics of macerate and their origin 245
4.63 Macerals in lacustrine petroleum source rocks 247
4.64 Macerals in marine petroleum source rocks 250
4.65 The nature of unstructured organic matter 251
4.66 Changes during maturation 254
4.67 Concluding remarks 255
4.7 Inorganic matter associated with the macerals of coal 255
4.71 Minerals 256
4.711 Clay minerals 257
4.712 Quartz 260
4.713 Carbonate minerals 261
4.714 Sulfides 264
4.715 Less abundant minerals 265
4.715.1 Phosphates 265
4.715.2 Heavyminerals 266
4.715.3 Salts 267
4.715.4 Other minerals 267
4.72 Trace elements 268
4.721 Modes of occurrence 268
4.722 Some geological aspects 269
4.723 Radioactivity 270
4.724 Contents of trace elements in coals 270
4.725 Concluding remarks 271
4.8 Oxidized organic matter in coal 271
5. Lithotypes and Microlithotypes 275
5.1 Introduction 275
5.2 Coals and coaly shales 275
5.21 Lithotypes 275
5.211 The lithotype concept 275
5.212 Humic coals (other than soft brown coals) 276
5.212.1 Vitrain 276
5.212.2 Clarain 277
5.212.3 Durain 277
5.212.4 Fusain 277
5.212.5 Mineral-rich lithotypes (other than tonsteins) 277
5.212.6 Tonsteins 278
5.213 Brown coals 279
5.213.1 Nature and origin of lithotypes in brown coal 279
5.213.2 The classification of brown coal lithotypes 279
5.213.21 Matrix coal 280
5.213.22 Xylite-rich coal 281
5.213.23 Charcoal-rich coal 281
5.213.24 Mineral-rich coal 281
5.214 Sapropelic coals 281
5.22 Microlithotypes 282
5.221 The microlithotype concept 282
5.222 Microlithotypes of humic coals 285
5.222.1 Vitrite 285
5.222.2 Liptite 288
5.222.3 Inertite 288
5.222.4 Clarite 289
5.222.5 Vitrinertite 290
5.222.6 Durite 290
5.222.7 Trimacerite 292
5.222.8 Carbominerite 293
5.223 Physical and chemical properties of microlithotypes in humic coals 294
5.224 Sapropelic coals and liptobioliths 295
5.224.1 Sapropelic coals 295
5.224.11 Cannel coals 297
5.224.12 Boghead coals 299
5.224.2 Liptobioliths 299
5.3 Organic matter-rich sediments other than coal 301
5.31 Clastic rocks with terrigenous organic matter (carbonaceous rocks) 301
5.32 Rocks with 'aqueous' organic matter (sapropelic rocks) 303
5.33 Rocks with secondary organic matter (impregnated rocks) 304
6. Some important coals and other carbonaceous rocks of the world 306
6.1 Introduction 306
6.2 Pre-Carboniferous carbonaceous rocks 306
6.3 Carboniferous carbonaceous rocks 310
6.31 Carboniferous coals 310
6.311 Macroscopic seam characteristics 311
6.312 Microscopic petrography 311
6.312.1 Macerals 312
6.312.11 Vitrinite group 312
6.312.12 Liptinite group 312
6.312.13 Inertinite group 313
6.312.2 Mineral matter 313
6.313 Use and assessment 314
6.32 Other Carboniferous carbonaceous rocks 314
6.4 Permian carbonaceous rocks 314
6.41 Permian coals 314
6.411 Macroscopic seam characteristics 315
6.412 Microscopic petrography 315
6.412.1 Macerals 315
6.412.11 Vitrinite group 316
6.412.12 Liptinite group 317
6.412.13 Inertinite group 319
6.412.14 Possible reasons for the characteristic maceral
composition of some Gondwana coals 321
6.412.2 Mineral matter 322
6.413 Rank: thermal and tectonic alteration 324
6.414 Use and assessment of coals 325
6.42 Other Permian carbonaceous rocks 325
6.5 Mesozoic carbonaceous rocks 325
6.51 Mesozoic coals 325
6.511 Macroscopic seam characteristics 327
6.512 Microscopic petrography 327
6.52 Mesozoic carbonaceous rocks other than coal 329
6.6 Cenozoic carbonaceous rocks 330
6.61 Tertiary coals 330
6.611 Macroscopic seam characteristics 330
6.612 Microscopic petrography 330
6.613 Use and assessment 332
6.62 Quaternary coals 333
6.63 Other Cenozoic carbonaceous rocks 333
6.7 Overview 333
7. Methods and procedures 335
7.1 Sampling 335
7.11 Coal samples 335
7.111 Column (or pillar) samples 336
7.112 Channel samples 336
7.113 Drill cores 337
7.114 Run-of-mine and prepared coal products 337
7.115 Oriented specimens 337
7.116 Grab specimens 337
7.117 Reduction of coal samples 338
7.12 Dispersed organic matter 339
7.13 Other specimens 340
7.2 Macroscopic description of organic and associated sedimentary rocks 340
7.21 Macroscopic description of coals 340
7.211 Purpose 340
7.212 Preparation for examination 341
7.213 Visual descriptive systems 341
7.213.1 Hard coals 341
7.213.2 Low-rank coals 343
7.214 Non-visual methods of recording coal lithologies 344
7.22 Description of inter-seam strata 346
7.23 Description of rock samples for the study of organic matter 346
7.24 Description of oil shales 347
7.3 Sample preparation for microscopical study 347
7.31 Polished blocks 348
7.32 Polished particulate mounts for coal 348
7.321 Simple moulding 349
7.322 Pressure moulding 350
7.323 Polishing procedure 351
7.324 Special applications 352
7.33 Strew mounts for organic concentrates 353
7.34 Polished mounts for dispersed organic matter 353
7.35 Thin sections of coal and dispersed organic matter 353
7.36 Polished thin sections 354
7.37 Preparation for electron microscopical examinations 355
7.371 SEM 356
7.372 TEM 356
7.38 Liquefaction residues 357
7.4 Maceral analysis 358
7.41 Theoretical basis of the analysis 358
7.42 Methods of analysis 360
7.421 White light maceral analysis 360
7.422 Combined white/blue light maceral analysis 363
7.43 Reporting and statistical significance of results 364
7.5 Microlithotype analysis 367
7.51 General remarks 367
7.52 Identification of microlithotypes 368
7.53 The 20-point ocular method 369
7.531 Equipment 369
7.532 Procedure 369
7.533 Evaluation and presentation of results 370
7.534 Accuracy of analysis 370
7.54 The selon-la-ligne method 370
7.6 Reflectance 371
7.61 General remarks 371
7.62 Theory 372
7.621 Interrelations of reflectance, refractive index and absorption
coefficient 372
7.622 Anisotropy and bireflectance 373
7.63 Equipment and accessories 379
7.631 Light source 380
7.632 Polarizer 380
7.633 Vertical illuminator 380
7.634 Objectives 382
7.635 Object stage 382
7.636 Eyepieces 382
7.637 Limiting aperture 382
7.638 Monochromatic filter 383
7.639 Photometric system 383
7.63.10 Display and recorder 384
7.63.11 Levelling device 384
7.63.12 Immersion oil 384
7.64 Reflectance standards 385
7.65 Set-up 387
7.66 Reflectance procedure 388
7.67 Reporting and significance of results 391
7.7 Image analysis and automated specimen-plane scanning 391
7.71 Comparison of image-plane to specimen-plane automated analysis 391
7.72 Specimen-plane scanning 394
7.73 Video image analysis 398
7.731 General remarks 398
7.732 Background 399
7.732.1 Comparison to human vision 399
7.732.2 History 399
7.732.3 Theory 399
7.732.4 Image processing and analysis 400
7.733 Equipment 401
7.733.1 Microscope 401
7.733.2 Camera 402
7.733.3 Computer and image acquisition interface 403
7.733.4 Software 403
7.734 Procedures and applications 404
7.734.1 Sample preparation 404
7.734.2 Reflectance analysis 404
7.734.3 Maceral analysis 405
7.734.4 Lithotype and microlithotype analysis 406
7.734.5 Pyrite particle size, shape, morphology and association 406
7.734.6 Other applications 406
7.8 Fluorescence microscopy 407
7.81 General remarks 407
7.82 Chemical basis of fluorescence 408
7.83 Fluorescence techniques 414
7.831 Visual examination 416
7.831.1 Equipment 416
7.831.2 Global fluorescence index 417
7.832 Quantitative spectral fluorescence analysis 418
7.832.1 Equipment 418
7.832.2 Set-up 420
7.832.3 Procedure 422
7.832.4 Spectral parameters 423
7.833 Determination of fluorescence intensity 425
7.833.1 Introduction 425
7.833.2 Equipment 427
7.833.3 Set-up and procedures 428
7.833.4 Parameters 428
7.9 Some geochemical methods which complement organic petrology 428
7.10 Etching and staining techniques 434
7.10.1 Etching of polished coal surfaces 434
7.10.2 Staining of polished coal surfaces 437
7. ll Determination of hardness 438
7.11.1 General remarks 438
7.11.2 Method of measurement 439
7.12 Coke microscopy 441
7.12.1 General remarks 441
7.12.2 Measurement of microstructure 442
7.12.3 Measurement of microtexture 442
7.13 The study of liquefaction residues and reactor solids 446
7.13.1 Introduction 446
7.13.2 Techniques used in residue petrography 447
7.14 Microscopy of combustion and pyrolysis chars 447
8. Geological applications 451
8.1 Methodology of organic petrology applied to geological problems 451
8.11 Determination of rank for sedimentary rocks other than coal 451
8.111 Selection of samples 452
8.112 Concentration of organic matter 453
8.113 Preparation of sections 453
8.114 Reflectance measurements on vitrinite 454
8.115 Fluorescence microscopy 457
8.12 Microscopical analysis of organic matter in rocks other than coal 458
8.2 Diagenesis and metamorphism of minerogenic rocks in relation to
coalification 459
8.21 Diagenesis 460
8.22 Very low-grade metamorphism (anchimetamorphism) 462
8.23 Low-grade metamorphism 465
8.24 High-grade metamorphism 465
8.3 Seam correlation, stratigraphy, paleogeography (basins) and
tectonics (structural problems) 466
8.31 Seam identification and correlation 466
8.311 Methods of seam identification 466
8.312 Seam identification using petrological methods 467
8.312.1 Marker seams 467
8.312.2 Petrographic seam sections - lithotypes 468
8.312.3 Microlithotypes 469
8.312.4 Microscopic seam identification - dull layers 470
8.312.5 Crassidurite seams 470
8.312.6 Maceral analysis 471
8.313 Swelling index profiles 471
8.314 Seam identification using spores 472
8.314.1 Spore analysis 472
8.314.2 Spore frequency diagrams 472
8.315 Seam identification using determination of rank 472
8.32 Stratigraphy 473
8.33 Paleogeography (basins) 474
8.34 Tectonics 479
8.4 Organic petrology in relation to geothermics 488
8.41 Stable domains 490
8.42 Crustal distensions (rift basins) 490
8.43 The convergent systems of the crust (island arcs) 494
8.5 Exploration for hydrocarbons 496
8.51 Source rocks 497
8.511 Geochemistry of source rocks 497
8.512 Organic petrology of source rocks 498
8.52 Thermal maturation 501
8.53 Limits of maturity stages for the generation and disappearance of
petroleum and dry gas (methane) 505
8.54 Coal as a source and reservoir rock for oil and gas 506
8.55 Basin studies related to oil and gas prospecting 507
8.56 Examples of basins where oil and gas are present 507
8.561 The Congo Basin, West Africa 508
8.562 The Sahara basins, with separate oil and gas provinces 508
8.563 Oil and gas in northern Germany 511
8.564 The West Siberian Basin 511
8.6 Ore genesis and related applications 513
8.61 Ore genesis 5113
8.62 Other mineral/organic matter interactions 516
8.7 Other applications of organic petrology 517
8.71 Soil, refuse, effluents 517
8.72 Archaeology 517
8.73 Sediment provenance 518
9. Technological applications 519
9.1 Coal exploration 521
9.2 Coal preparation 525
9.21 The influence of crushing and screening on the petrographic
composition of Coal li coal 525
9.22 The influence of density separation on the petrographic composition of
coal 526
9.23 The effect on coal properties of oxidation, storage and shipping 528
9.3 Coal carbonisation 530
9.31 The transformation of coal into coke 532
9.311 The effect of coal rank on carbonisation and coke fabric 538
9.312 The effect of coal type on carbonisation and coke fabric 544
9.312.1 Inertinite 546
9.312.2 Liptinite 547
9.312.3 Vitrinite 550
9.32 The petrology of coke 551
9.33 The relationship between coke composition and its quality 553
9.34 The relationship between feed coal and coke quality 559
9.341 Petrographic methods of coke stability estimation 559
9.341.1 The predictive models 559
9.341.2 Methods of assessing maceral fusibility 564
9.341.21 Direct methods of determining maceral fusibility 567
9.341.22 Indirect methods of determining maceral
fusibility 572
9.341.23 Other considerations 580
9.342 Mixed petrographic and chemical methods of estimating coke
stability 581
9.35 Petrographic aspects of blending 584
9.36 Additional coal uses and future developments in the iron and
steel industry 589
9.4 Coal combustion 590
9.41 Pulverized coal combustion 592
9.411 From ignition to burnout 593
9.412 The origin of unburnt carbon in ash 598
9.412.1 The effects of coal rank on char burn-off 599
9.412.2 The effects of coal type on char burn-off 600
9.413 Inorganic flyash 600
9.414 The emission of gaseous products 601
9.415 Boiler deposits and slag formation 602
9.42 Additional considerations and future development 603
9.421 Power generation using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) 603
9.422 Integrated gasification combined cycle generation (IGCC) 604
9.423 Fuel cells 604
9.424 Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) 605
9.5 Coal gasification 605
9.51 Methods of gasification 606
9.511 Fluidized-bed gasification 606
9.512 Fixed-bed gasification 607
9.513 Entrained-flow gasification 607
9.514 Molten-bath gasification 608
9.52 Coal properties for gasification 608
Coal liquefaction 609
9.61 Methods of liquefaction 609
9.611 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis 609
9.612 Hydrogenation 610
9.613 Pyrolysis 610
9.62 Coal properties for liquefaction 611
9.63 The solid liquefaction residues 613
9.64 Future development of coal liquefaction 613
Coals for other industrial purposes 614
References 615
Appendices 678
Appendix 1: Stratigraphic columns showing the distribution of some coals and
other carbonaceous rocks referred to in the text 678
Appendix 2: Symbols for reflectance 684
Subject Index 685