Victor E. Khain:

Geology of the USSR

Part 1: Old cratons and paleozoic fold belts

1985. VIII, 272 pages, 57 figures, 17x25cm, 1200 g
Language: English

(Beiträge zur regionalen Geologie der Erde, Band 17)

ISBN 978-3-443-11017-8, bound, price: 86.00 €

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geologyUSSRcratonregionBalticLake BaikalGeologieUDSSRKratonRegionBaltikumBaikalsee


Synopsis top ↑

Having received an offer from Gebriider Borntraeger Publishing House Berlin—Stuttgart to write a book on the geology of the USSR for the series “Beitréige zurregionalen Geologie der Erde“, I accepted this offer willingly, being aware of the fact that there is no recent work on the geology of the Soviet Union published outside that country, and that many scientists are unable to use the extensive Soviet literature for a lack of knowledge of the Russian language. The classical work by NALIVKIN, ”Geology of the USSR“, which was first published in 1960, was the last significant review of the geology of the USSR that was translated into English. Since then, new data, which change the old concepts in many respects, were obtained for practically all regions of the Soviet Union. Another circumstance is of no less importance: the structure of the fold system regions of the Soviet Union is now viewed in the light of fundamentally new ideas of theoretical geology; the major role of overthrust nappes has been recognized; ophiolitic complexes, which are regarded as relics of the oceanic crust, have been studied in detail; paleomagnetic determi- nations furnished evidence of appreciable relative horizontal movements of ancient cratons.

The author, discussing the geology of the vast territory of the USSR, places the main emphasis on its tectonic structure, paleo- tectonics, and the sequence of the main lithological formations. Stratigraphic material and, in particular, paleontological proof of the age of stratigraphic subdivision, is not given in the book, lest it would make the book unwieldy. The reader is, therefore, referred to the extensive editions of the ”Geology of the USSR“ and especially ”Stratigraphy of the USSR“, where exhaustive information on this subject can be found. As for paleogeography, we advise the reader to refer to the four-volume "Atlas of Lithologic-Paleogeographic Maps of the USSR" and to the explanatory notes for the Atlas, ”Paleogeography of the USSR“, also published in four issues. The reader will find a list of the principal general works on USSR geology, published during the last 15 to 20 years.

In this description of fold systemy, situated near Soviet borders with other countries, the author found it appropriate, for the completeness of the discussion, to follow their continuations (or intermediate links) on the territories of adjacent countries.

The second part of this publication will probably be published in winter 1986/87. It will primarily describe the mesozoic and Cenozoic structures. An important chapter will deal with the geosynclinal evolution of the USSR and the plate tectonics aspects, for contents of this second part see page 3 of this prospectus.

Of interest to all geoscientists and geoscientific institutions, geophysicists, mineralogists, petrographers, geographers, paleontologists, mining and petroleum industry, oil and oilgas industry, scientific libraries.

Contents top ↑

Preface V
1. Principal structural elements of the USSR territory 1
2. The ancient Eastern European Craton 6
2.1 Boundaries and main structural elements 6
2.2 The Baltic Shield 10
2.3 The Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Massif 27
2.4 The Russian Platform 35
2.4.1 Inner structure of the basement 35
2.4.2 The structure of the sedimentary cover 38
2.5 Main stages of evolution 48
2.5.1 The Archaean stage 48
2.5.2 The Early Proterozoic (Karelian) stage 49
2.5.3 The Middle Proterozoic (Svecofennian) stage 50
2.5.4 The beginning of the Late Proterozoic (Gothian) stage 50
2.5.5 The middle and the end of the Late Proterozoic (Dalslandian
and Early Baikalian stages) 51
2.5.6 The Late Baikalian-Caledonian stage (Vendian-Early Devonian) 53
2.5.7 The Hercynian stage (Middle Devonian-Middle Triassic) 55
2.5.8 The Cimmerian and Alpine stages
(Late Triassic-Quaternary period) 60
2.6 Conclusions on the history and structure of the Eastern
European Craton 62
3. The Timan-Pechora epi-Baikalian Platform 67
3.1 Boundaries and principal structural subdivisions 67
3.2 The Kanin-Timan Ridge and the nature of the basement of
the Timan-Pechora Platform 69
3.3 The Pechora Syneclise 72
3.4 Main stages of evolution 73
3.4.1 Dalslandian-Baikalian stage 74
3.4.2 Caledonian stage (Ordovician-Late Devonian) 74
3.4.3 The Middle Devonian and early Late Devonian 75
3.4.4 Hercynian stage (Late Devonian-Early Permian) 75
3.4.5 Late Hercynian-Early Cimmerian stage (Middle Permian-Triassic) 76
3.4.6 Late Cimmerian-Alpine stage durassic-Paleogene) 76
3.4.7 Late Alpine stage (Neogene - Quaternary) 77
4. The ancient Siberian Craton 79
4.1 Boundaries and principal subdivisions of the Siberian Craton 79
4.2 Aldan Shield, Anabar Massif, and general structure of craton
basement 82
4.3 Structure of the sedimentary cover of the Mid-Siberian Platform 84
4.4 Main stages of craton evolution 102
4.4.1 Archaean stage 102
4.4.2 Early Proterozoic stage 103
4.4.3 Middle Proterozoic stage 104
4.4.4 Late Proterozoic stage including Baikalian 104
4.4.5 Caledonian stage (Cambrian to Middle Devonian) 107
4.4.6 Hercynian stage (Late Devonian to Middle Triassic) 112
4.4.7 Late Cimmerian stage (Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous) 113
4.5 Some conclusions on the history and structure of the Siberian
Craton 115
5. Taimyr-Severnaya Zemlya fold region 118
5.1 General features of the relief and main views on tectonics of
the region 118
5.2 The Kara Massif 120
5.3 The Northern Severnaya Zemlya zone 123
5.4 The Central Taimyr zone 124
5.5 The Southern Taimyr zone 125
5.6 The Yenisei-Khatanga Trough 125
5.7 Main stages of evolution 126
5.7.1 Early Precambrian stage 126
5.7.2 Late Precambrian stage 127
5.7.3 Caledonian and Early Hercynian stage
(Cambrian to Early Carboniferous) 127
5.7.4 Late Hercynian-Early Cimmerian stage
(Middle Carboniferous to Late Triassic) 128
5.7.5 Alpine stage Jurassic to Quaternary) 129
5.8 Some deductions 130
6. Hercynian geosynclinal fold system of the Urals 132
6.1 Principal features of the relief, state of geological knowledge
and general structural zonality 132
6.1.1 Zone of Uralian foredeeps 135
6.1.2 The Frontal Bashkirian Uplift 136
6.1.3 The Western Uralian zone 136
6.1.4 The Central Uralian Uplift zone (Anticlinorium or
Meganticlinorium) 137
6.1.5 The Tagil-Magnitogorskzone(Synclinorium, Megasynclinorium) 138
6.1.6 The Eastern Uralian Uplift zone (Anticlinorium or
Meganticlinorium) 139
6.1.7 The Eastern Uralian Synclinorium zone 139
6.1.8 The Transuralian Uplift zone 140
6.1.9 The Tyumen'- Kustanai zone (Synclinorium) 141
6.2 The Southern Urals 141
6.3 The Middle Urals 146
6.4 The Northern Urals 150
6.5 The Polar Urals 152
6.6 Pai Khoi and Novaya Zemlya, structure of the Barents Sea 155
6.7 Main stages of evolution 160
6.7.1 Pre-Middle Riphean history 160
6.7.2 The Grenville and Baikalian stages (Middle and Late Riphean,
Vendian, and Early Cambrian) 161
6.7.3 The Caledonian stage (Late Cambrian - Ordovician - Early
Devonian) 164
6.7.4 The Hercynian geosynclinal stage (Middle Devonian-Early
Carboniferous) 167
6.7.5 The Hercynian orogenic stage (Middle Carboniferous-Early
Triassic) 168
6.7.6 The Platform stage Jurassic- Eocene) 171
6.7.7 The Neotectonic stage (Oligocene- Quaternary) 171
6.8 Some conclusions and problems 172
7. Paleozoic geosynclinal fold system of Central Kazakhstan and
Northern Tien Shan 174
7.1 Boundaries and main structural subdivisions, state of geological
knowledge 174
7.2 The Kokchetav-Muyunkum Median Massif 178
7.3 The Ishim-Talas zone of Early Caledonides 184
7.4 The Karatau-Naryn Caledonian-Hercynian fold zone 185
7.5 The Turgai- Syr Darya Median Massif 187
7.6 The Yerementau-Chuili Caledonian eugeosynclinal fold system188
7.7 The Chinghiz-Tarbagatai Late Caledonian and Hercynian fold
system 91
7.8 The Dzhungaro-Balkhash Hercynian fold system 191
7.9 The platform structure of Central Kazakhstan and the orogenic
structure of Northern Tien Shan 198
7.10 Main stages of evolution 199
7.10.1 Pre-Baikalian history 199
7.10.2 The Late Archaean stage 201
7.10.3 The Early Proterozoic (Karelian) stage 01
7.10.4 The Middle Proterozoic-Early Riphean stage 202
7.10.5 The Middle Riphean (Grenvillian) stage 202
7.10.6 The Baikalian stage (Late Riphean- Vendian) 203
7.10.7 The Caledonian stage (Vendian-Middle Devonian) 203
7.10.8 The Hercynian geosynclinal stage (second half of the
Devonian-first half of the Early Carboniferous) 212
7.10.9 The Hercynian early orogenic stage (end of Early
Carboniferous-beginning of the Permian) 213
7.10.10 The Hercynian late orogenic stage (Permian period) 214
7.10.11 The Cimmerian- Early Alpine platform stage
(Triassic- Paleogene) 215
7.10.12 The Late Alpine stage of orogenic reactivation
(Neogene- Quaternary) 216
7.11 Structural and evolutional features of the region 217
8. Southern Tien Shan Hercynian geosynclinal fold system 221
8.1 Boundaries, principal structural subdivisions,
geological coverage 221
8.2 The Central (Gissar-Alai) segment of Southern Tien Shan 224
8.3 The western (Kyzyl Kum) segment of Southern Tien Shan and its
relationship with the Urals 228
8.4 The eastern segment of Southern Tien Shan 231
8.5 Recent structure of Southern Tien Shan. The Ferghana
Intermontane Basin 234
8.6 Main stages of evolution 237
8.6.1 Pre-geosynclinal and early geosynclinal (Late Riphean-Early
Carboniferous) history 237
8.6.2 The early orogenic stage (end of the Early to Middle
Carboniferous) 239
8.6.3 The late orogenic stage (Late Carboniferous-Middle Triassic) 240
8.6.4 The platform stage (Late Triassic- Early Paleogene) 241
8.6.5 Stage of orogenic reactivation (Oligocene- Quaternary) 242
8.7 Conclusions 243
References 245
Author Index 261